Ensino e aprendizagem significativa do conceito de ligação química por meio de mapas conceituais
Trindade, José Odair da
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As a consequence of student difficulties related to concepts of greater abstraction of Chemistry, the concept of Meaningful Learning according to the theory of Ausubel was used in this work. From it, the twodimensional diagrams Conceptual Maps intend to represent the relationships among concepts, through propositions, in a particular topic. They can be used as teaching, assessment, and study strategies among others. In order to minimize the mentioned difficulties, we organized a short course relating to Chemical Bonds that were applied in a class of high school first year in the State of Minas Gerais. In classes, students came into contact with diversified educational strategies: computer-related activities (virtual reality-3D, animation, video), modeling (plastic models, balloons) and instructional material (book) organized from the theory of Ausubel. As a way of learning assessment, we used the preparation of conceptual maps. Upon completion, students answered a Questionnaire evaluating the teaching methodology. The major difficulties were related to the absence of examples in the maps and the correct construction of propositions, supported by appropriated linking words. With this study, we found that the strategy of Conceptual Maps is a valuable resource to probe in depth the limitations and potential for students learning, even in very arid field, dominated by a lack of motivation for learning meaningful and the absence of material resources. On the other hand, there was a wide acceptance by students of information technology and models, but lower for the preparation of maps. It is possible that this resistance is a consequence of the good results in previous approaches to learning by memorization, because students become unsafe for the strategies for change in Meaningful Learning, when considering a challenge to take responsibility to build their own meanings, though rewarding for some apprentices.