Análise das variáveis ambientais causadas pelas mudanças dos usos e cobertura da terra do município de São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil
Trevisan, Diego Peruchi
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Anthropogenic impacts tend to simplify natural ecosystems, reducing the inherent resistance to change and breaking their resilience thresholds in more than one place at a time. Such interference in the landscape converts extensive and continuous areas of forest cover in forest fragments, affecting the availability and quality of natural resources. It is essential to analyze the municipality in its local and regional geographical context as well as the study of typically urban and agricultural structures, aiming at establishing forms of growth and consolidation consistent with sustainable development goals. Given these considerations, this study aimed to obtain landscape information in the Brazilian city of São Carlos (SP) using landscape structural indices. Data were entered and analyzed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Landscape structure was evaluated using dynamic and municipal land cover in 2003 and 2013 as well as applying the Urbanity Index. The Index of Landscape Fragility assessed environmental fragility of the city's landscape. The Environmental Quality Vegetation Index identified and analyzed susceptibility to the effects of ecological components of a particular human activity. The Environmental Quality Index of Water Resources assessed susceptibility of water resources in relation to distance of impact sources. The Vulnerability Index assessed landscape susceptibility due to loss of biodiversity and habitats resulting from fragmentation of native vegetation class. Results showed that direct and indirect forces of change acting on landscape are respectively agricultural activities, mainly correlated to sugarcane cultivation. From 2003 to 2013, there was an increase in the areas occupied by human activities and consequently the reduction of natural areas and loss landscape’s environmental quality with resulting increased fragility as environmental vulnerability. Current developmental trajectories cannot occur without causing impacts, but are not providing benefits the way they should. Loss and degradation of areas of natural vegetation remaining in São Carlos municipality landscape continue growing way. However, the available evidence suggests that the continuation of these fragments in landscape can still provide more economical benefits than those obtained from the conversion and agricultural expansion of land use. The current stage of the city is not the only concern, but also trends – such as the loss of natural areas with increases of anthropogenic uses that solidify over the years, and are discussed in the analysis of the remaining vegetation in the city. The current growth model and generation of impacts are not carried out in favor of the need for concrete development of the city as a whole, but only of certain activities and sectors present in it.