Investigação dos determinantes moleculares envolvidos na interação com os substratos de Tsa1 e Tsa2 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Breyer, Carlos Alexandre
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Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are antioxidant proteins capable of decomposing a variety of hydroperoxide are very abundant in the cell and in eukaryotes are distributed in many cell compartments. The Prx are able to reduce their substrates using a highly reactive cysteine residue, named peroxidatic cysteine (CP-S-), which is maintained in the thiolate form as a consequence of the active site environment. In hydroperoxide decomposition process the CP is oxidized to cysteine sulfenic acid (CP-SOH). These vast majorities of these proteins are obligate dimers and has a second cysteine involved in the catalytic cycle, named resolution cysteine (CR), which forms a disulfide with CP and is often reduced by the enzyme thioredoxin (Trx). In addition to the reduction of Prx, the Trx are involved in several other biological processes such as cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis, transcriptional activation and DNA synthesis. When cell are exposed to oxidative stress, the CP can suffer overoxidation, forming species such as cysteine sulfinic acid (CP-SO2H) and cysteine sulfonic acid (CP-SO2H), which are not reduced by Trx. However, the CP overoxidation results in a change of the of Prx quaternary structure, resulting in the formation of high molecular weight structures (HMW) with molecular chaperone property and related to signal transduction triggered by hydroperoxides. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have two isoforms of cytosolic Prx (Tsa1 and Tsa2), which shares high similarity (86% identity and 96% similarity), but differ in cellular abundance and expression levels. However, these enzymes are often considered redundant proteins. This study aimed the comparative analysis searching for functional and structural differences between Tsa1 and Tsa2. We evaluated Tsa1 and Tsa2 relationships with its oxidizing (hydroperoxide) and reducing substrates (Trx1 and Trx2). We also performed structural and kinetic analysis showed a significant relationship between maintaining the decameric structure the activity of enzymes which occurs by a series polar interactions but not equal to the active site amino acids. Highlighting the Thr44 of Tsa1 (Ser in Tsa2) which is involved in decamer structure stabilization by a CH-π interaction type with the Tyr77 and through the Oγ atom (from Thr) polar interactions with Phe45 and Leu41. Overoxidation susceptibility assays were performed using Tsa1 and Tsa2, and our results revealed that organic hydroperoxides were able to promote the CP overoxidation more efficiently when compared to H2O2. In turn, Tsa2 was very more resistant to CP overoxidation than Tsa1. This difference was also investigated concerning the catalytic triad Thr (Tsa1) to Ser (Tsa2). We generated mutants carrying reciprocal substitutions Tsa1T44S and Tsa2S44T and our results revealed that Tsa1T44S become more resistant to CP overoxidation and Tsa2S44T become more sensitive. The formation of high molecular weight structures (HMW) of Tsa1, Tsa2 and mutants were also investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Tsa1, Tsa2 and mutants HMW formation were analyzed by size exclusion chromatograph (SEC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed an increase of HMW formation after Trx system reaction using high concentrations of CHP. Were observed the stacking of the ring-shaped structures besides spherical species. Our results demonstrate that Tsa1 and Tsa2 proteins differ significantly in overoxidation susceptibility and HMW complex formation, indicating that these proteins have not redundant biological roles and small changes in active site promote high functional and structural changes in these enzymes.