Envolvimento dos trabalhadores em grupos de melhorias : estudos de caso sobre o seis sigma
Zanca, Camila Garcia
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This study aims to understand how Six Sigma has been appropriated by companies, considering the involvement of blue collar workers in improvement teams, its composition and objectives prioritized by the method approaches in companies. Quality methods, especially those related to Japanese model, such as Total Quality Management, recommend the involvement of workers. Six Sigma, latest diffusion method, has particular regard to the organization of work, marked by studies that identify a more limited involvement than recommended by manuals Six Sigma and compared the quality methods used in the past. For its pioneering adoption of management practices, consisting of reference even for other sectors, the automotive sector was chosen to conduct the research, specifically the auto parts segment. In view of different uses of quality methods by companies, five case studies were conducted, as well as analysis of previous survey and information gathered in telephone interviews with six other companies. It was identified that the involvement of workers occurs mainly in quality control and suggestion programs, whose different formats can promote varying levels of involvement. Involvement with Six Sigma, in turn, is restricted to the collection of information for improvements. It is less likely workers were involved in the decision of the improvements to be developed and the full cycle of projects. The main reasons cited for not involve workers with Six Sigma were the complexity of statistical tools, the difficulties in giving training to workers and jobs cuts embedded in some improvements in the projects promoted. The company that promoted greater involvement has a consolidated experience in problem-solving teams, which joined the Six Sigma elements. This hybridization between methods was also observed in another participating company in relation to kaizen. A less significant involvement was observed in the company whose approach to Six Sigma is directed primarily to cost reduction. Since being acquired by a holding company, this company has restricted the participation of workers, signaling that the management of shareholders may be greatly influenced the organization of work, which is reinforced by the analysis of projects and implementation of Six Sigma in this company. The case studies contribute to the understanding of changes in work organization related to the spread of Six Sigma and the predominance of financial logic.