Efeito dos materiais do backing bar na geometria e dureza de juntas soldadas por FSW em ligas de alumínio 6013 e 2024
Rosales, Marcio José Cuccolo
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Solid-state joining techniques such as Friction Stir Welding (FSW) are a natural choice to produce weld low heat input, limited slight distortion and low microstructural and mechanical degradation. Great effort has currently been devoted to the joining of Al-Cu-Mg and the Al-Mg-Si alloys because of their high strength, improved formability, and application in airframe structures. FSW is a continuous, hot shear, autogenous process involving a non-consumable and rotating tool plunged between two abutting workpieces. Classical or single sided friction stir welds utilize a steel backing bar, to support the workpieces but also to prevent material loss from the join. The backing bar plays an important role in heat transfer from the joint or stir zone, which can influence the weld microstructure as well as the consolidation of material in the root of the join. The influence of backing bar material on stir zone formation has been poorly investigated in the literature. This study aims at investigating issues concerning heat transfer and plastic deformation within the stir zone of friction stir welded aircraft aluminum alloys. This study has provided clear evidence that heat transfer conditions differ in accordance to alloy type (composition), process parameters during FSW and backing bar material. The influence of heat flow on mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welded joints is primarily in response to the alloys resistance to plastic deformation. Thus this is the main cause why slip or stick occurs during contact of the tool with material in viscoplastic flow. For the FSW of the 2024-T351 alloy a slip condition dominates, while in the case of friction stir welds produced in the 6013-T6 alloy stick occurs in the interface of tool.