Pigmentos inorgânicos como tema para interdisciplinaridade e contextualização no ensino de química
Della Volpe, André Luís
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This paper presents the results obtained during the development of a didactic, interdisciplinary and contextualized alternative, using an approach that promoted elements of the Science-Technology-Society (CTS) and History and Philosophy of Science (HFC) movements. Three Didactic Sequences (SDs) were elaborated for the teaching of General and Inorganic Chemistry concepts, emphasizing the study of the inorganic functions and the synthesis of inorganic compounds. Within this proposal, guided by the official documents of Brazilian education, Chemistry and its relation with the use of Inorganic Pigments (IPs) in the social-historical scenarios played a fundamental role in the development of the aforementioned contents. The research methodology used in this work was characterized as qualitative, seeking a better understanding of the problem researched from observations directly extracted from the subjects with whom the researcher sought to establish a direct interaction. From the application and analysis of the previous questionnaires and characterization of the profile of the institution where the research was developed, SDs were elaborated that related the contents with the pictorial use of the PIs. The first SD dealt with oxides chemistry in rock paintings; the second SD dealt with the Acids, Bases and Sals involved with the pigments used in the Egyptian funerary murals (both SDs applied to students of the High School Integrated to the Technician in Chemistry); the third SD approached in an integrated way the Chemistry of the four Inorganic Functions from the perspective of the works of the natural artist of Capivari, Tarsila do Amaral (applied in Chemistry Technician in the Concomitant / Subsequent modality). After the application of the SDs, the materials produced by the students (mock-ups, panels, written evaluations and technical-scientific reports) were analyzed and it was possible to verify evidence of the presence of elements of CTS and HFC the occurrence of learning chemistry, but also a more humanistic and integrated approach to social aspects, as recommended in the National Curricular Parameters for High School (PCNEM). This research also made possible the students' contact with aspects related to the creativity of the Chemical Science and its contribution to the Plastic Arts, a role little explored by textbooks.