Determinaçâo da toxicidade tópica e oral do inseticida fipronil e efeitos de suas doses subletais no comportamento de abelhas sem ferrão Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811)
Lourenço, Clara Tavares
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Melipona scutellaris bee, known as "uruçu" belong to the tribe Meliponini, popularly called stingless bees. This bee is endemic in northeastern Brazil and is distinguished by its ease of domestication and management, significant honey production and potential for pollination in greenhouses and open field. The insecticide fipronil acts on the insect nervous system by blocking the chloride channels through of the receptors gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GluCl). Widely used in Brazil and more than 70 countries is considered highly toxic to bees, which is why its use was banned in France in 2004. Toxicological studies of pesticides to bees use mostly as a model species A. mellifera bee, which sublethal doses of fipronil can cause behavioral changes related to core tasks for the colony, such as feeding and foraging. However, differences in susceptibility between species of bees to insecticides may expose native bees there is a greater risk. The aim of this study was to determine the topical LD50 and oral LC50 of insecticide fipronil for stingless bee M. scutellaris and evaluate the effects of fipronil sublethal doses and concentrations in the locomotor activity and in the Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) these bees. Foragers were collected in the output of three different colonies, consisting of three repetitions with ten bees each and they were placed in plastic pots of 250 mL. Bees subjected to topical treatments were anesthetized with CO2 and received 1.0 μL insecticide solution on pronotum with previously established doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 5.0 ng of fipronil / μL solution), applied with a repetitive automatic micropipette. Bees subjected to oral contamination received sucrose solution contaminated with concentrations of fipronil determined previously (0.0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.5 ng a.i./ μL sucrose solution) for 24 hours. The insecticide fipronil was considered highly toxic to these bees, both topically and orally. The topical intoxication resulted in a LD50 (48 hours) was 0.41 ng / bee (4.1 ng / g bee). The oral contamination resulted in a LC50 (48 hours) was 0.011 ng / μL of sucrose solution or, considering the amount of food they forage M. scutellaris consume daily in an oral LD50 of 0.6 ng a.i. / bee. The topic sublethal dose 0.05 ng a.i./bee and oral sublethal concentration 0.0011 ng a.i./ μL sucrose solution were cause significant changes for the locomotor activity these bees. The PER don't was a functional methodology for M. scutellaris bees. Results show that the bee M. scutellaris is more sensitive to fipronil than A. mellifera and that fipronil sublethal dose and concentrations affected the locomotor activity these bees.