Resíduos lignocelulósicos para biocombustível sólido: caracterização e termogravimetria aplicada
Pires, Ariane Aparecida Felix
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The biomass research for use as a biofuel has been increasing worldwide encouraged by the search for viable alternatives of renewable energy. Part of the biomass, lignocellulosic residues can be used to generate bioenergy from its combustion, and a way to use the material and add value to the final product. However, it is necessary to know deeply the properties and physicochemical characteristics of a material before employing it as solid biofuel, thus qualifying it beforehand and understand their behavior during combustion and calorific value. Basically, for application as solid biofuel, a material must have homogeneous particle size, moisture content suitable, low ash content and high calorific value, in addition to substantial market supply and availability of these residues. It is known that the chemical composition of a lignocellulosic material is directly affects its energy performance, high percentages of lignin, α-cellulose and carbon are related to a higher calorific value and combustion slower, increasing the durability of the burning fuel. In the search for materials that meet these requirements, this work studied the sugar cane bagasse and the Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. Sawdust, employing physicochemical analysis and thermogravimetry. From the thermogravimetric analysis of integrals lignocellulosic residues was possible to determine their lignin contents and fixed carbon and relates them to the results obtained by conventional analysis. The TG and DTG curves were studied for better understanding of the behavior of thermal degradation characteristic of integral plant biomass and its major components. The TG curve of lignin extracted from Eucalyptus sp. showed a higher thermal stability compared to other materials lignins. The results obtained for Eucalyptus sp. sawdust were the most satisfactory: lower ash content (0.46%), high lignin content (30.41%), higher carbon content (46.80%) and a higher calorific value (4415.3 kcal.kg-1), corresponding to the requirements necessary for a quality solid biofuel.