Localização, distribuição e orientação dos quimiorreceptores de O2 branquiais e o controle neural periférico dos reflexos cardiorrespiratórios de um teleósteo de respiração aérea, o bagre-africano, Clarias gariepinus
Belão, Thiago de Campos
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The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breather with the ABO present in the 2nd and 3rd gill arches. Like other bimodal respirators, the African catfish presents cardiorespiratory adjustments to survive low PwO2. These regulations are modulated by gill O2 chemoreceptors monitoring the PwO2 and/or the PaO2. The present study analyzed the distribution, location and orientation of the branchial O2 chemoreceptors of C. gariepinus, and the role of these receptors on the cardiorespiratory function and the modulation of the heart autonomic control. C. gariepinus were divided into two experimental groups (Control GC, intact fish, and Experimental GD, with the 1st gill arches excised) and their cardiorespiratory variables were analyzed during graded hypoxia with and without access to the atmospheric air, internal and external NaCN injections and autonomic nervous system antagonists. During hypoxia without access to air, both GC and GD showed increases in the respiratory variables (fR, VT and 𝑉 𝐺 ). However, the GD displayed higher values, since normóxia until severe hypoxia, to compensate the decrease in the EO2 resulting from the ablation of the 1st gill arches. Furthermore, the decrease in EO2 was responsible for the decrease in 𝑉 O2 and, consequently, for the increase of the PcO2 from 61 mmHg (GC) to 79 mmHg (GD). The GD featured bradycardia similar to GC, however, their values were higher in all PwO2. In hypoxia with access to air, both groups showed decrease in the fR and VAMP in the mores hypoxic tensions. This was attributed to the increases in the fRA in GC which compensate the O2 uptake. However, the GC increases in fRA were attenuated by the excision of the 1st gill arches. Moreover, both groups developed bradycardia pre-RA (typical of aquatic respirator) and tachycardia post-RA (typical of aerial respirator). Internal and external NaCN injections caused bradycardia in both groups, while the internal injections increased the ventilator variables only in GC. Thus, it is concluded that C. gariepinus possess branchial O2 chemoreceptors modulating the fH distributed by all gill arches, monitoring both PwO2 and PaO2. Conversely, fR and VAMP are modulated by receptors located in the 1st gill arches monitoring exclusively the PaO2. Furthermore, NaCN internal injections elevated more the fRA in GC than the external ones, but with low effect on the fRA of GD. Thus, the fRA is primarily modulated by O2 chemoreceptors located in the 1st gill arches monitoring, predominantly, the PaO2. Injections blocking the autonomic system to the heart showed that the modulation of pre-AR bradycardia and post-AR tachycardia occurs due to variations in the vagal cholinergic tonus, which is elevated during bradycardia and reduced during tachycardia. The adrenergic tonus, in spite of the decrease in the post-AR, is lower than the cholinergic, suggests a "reflex adrenergic" arising from the peripheral vasoconstriction, important to optimize the perfusion of the ABOs.