Toxicidade aguda e respostas metabólicas e hematológicas do bagre do canal (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) exposto a concentração sub-letal de fenol e recuperação
Moraes, Fernanda Dias de
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Phenol and its derivates are aromatic organic compounds and there are present in the mill, domestic waste and cropscience. Moreover, phenol could induce toxicity in both freshwater and seawater fish and other animals. The aim of this work was evaluating hematological features, intermediary metabolism and muscular and cerebral acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in juveniles channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phenol (10% LC50) for 96 h and after 7 or 14 days of recovery. Ammonia, lactate, piruvate, glucose, amino acids, protein, triglycerides and fatty acids concentrations were measured in liver, muscle and plasma. Glycogen concentration was determined in liver and muscle. Aspartate aminostransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), lactate desidrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (FALC) and acid phosphatase (FAC) enzymes activities were assayed in liver and muscle. Acetylcholinesterase activity was assayed in white muscle and brain. Hematological features were analyzed through hematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, red cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (VCM), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (HCM) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (CHCM). Hematological alterations were observed after 7 days of recovery. After 96 h, ALAT and ASAT activities and protein concentration indicated proteolysis liver and muscle. The triglycerides and fatty acids concentration suggested lipolysis in muscle. The results also indicated gluconeogenesis in liver. Gluconeogenesis follows over 7 days of recovery and glycemia was kept constant. After 7 days of recovery, the results suggested proteolysis and lipolysis in liver. After 14 days of recovery, the results indicated glycogenolysis and muscle and liver. Reductions of protein and amino acid concentrations plus ASAT activity rising in muscle, also suggested proteolysis. Alterations in FAC and FALC activities in muscle and liver were observed. These results suggest membrane cell damage. Reduction in cerebral AChE activity was observed after 14 days recovery. In other hand, an increase of muscular AChE was observed after 7 and 14 days recovery. In conclusion, the alterations observed in this work seem to be due to increased metabolic demand and other mechanisms that respond to homeostasis in fish.