A Evolução Biológica no ensino de Ciências: uma análise de livros didáticos antes e após a aprovação da Base Nacional Comum Curricular
Silva, Laura Luciana de Melo Moreira
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The Theory of Biological Evolution is currently the theory that guides the areas of biological sciences. Contradictorily, it is known that its teaching is flawed in basic education. Studies such as Cicillini (1993), Tidon e Lewontin (2004), Tidon e Vieira (2009), Oleques (2014) e Selles (2016); they discuss the difficulties in teaching due to the complexity of the topic, the lack of teacher preparation, or the option for not addressing the topic, for example, due to personal opinions. In another sense, we seek to understand what underlies educational policies, how this is given in didactic materials, and how much it affects teaching practice aimed at teaching evolution. With this, we discuss whether advances are presented in the recent education guideline, the Common National Curricular Base (BNCC) of 2018. The focus was given to teaching evolution for the final years of Elementary School. We conducted a historical contextualization of science teaching in Brazil and its main pedagogical trends, and analyzed textbooks prior to the BNCC and books that implement its changes, with analyzes supported by critical pedagogy. Conducting a qualitative research, of documentary type. In which the objective is aimed at understanding:: how is the teaching of the theme of biological evolution characterized in the science books most adopted in Brazil, before and after the implementation of the Common National Curricular Base?. Since, according to the 2nd article of Decree no. 9009, of July 18, 2017, the character of the National Textbook Plan (PNLD) of 2020 is to make the implementation of the changes established by the BNCC effective. Two collections of science textbooks were analyzed, the two most distributed according to the 2017 PNLD being chosen. The research made it possible to understand what guided the formulation of the BNCC, and to see that the advances found were few or null when comparing the collections of PNLD 2017 and PNLD 2020 books. Showing that biological evolution continues as an accessory theme, focused on content and memorization; besides similarities with the structuring of the theme in the same way as books from 1930.
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