Investigação do comportamento mecânico de scaffolds utilizados no tratamento de fraturas ósseas
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Scaffolds are implants used to accelerate the bone regeneration process of fractured bones. These components, developed in a research area called Bone Tissue Engineering, are designed to mimic human bone both in its composition and mechanical properties and are composed of biocompatible and biodegradable materials that have a manipulable shape whose function is to assist the regeneration of the desired site providing a temporary structure that facilitates cell union, proliferation and differentiation at the region and subsequently is absorbed and eliminated by the body after bone regeneration at the site. This study used the finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of scaffolds and the objective of the work was to compare the numerical results with the experimental data and to evaluate and determine the stiffness of the modeled scaffold configurations. It was concluded that of the two configurations composed of the same material, one having an organizational structure composed of cylinders and the other with hexagons, the latter exhibited a superiority in relation to rigidity and weight. However, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds proved to be inferior to those considered ideal in the literature, showing that the pure material studied is not the most suitable, but a composite. The need to refine the model was also seen, as a significant error was observed between the simulations and the real experiment, in addition to studying other types of loads to obtain a better understanding of the material's behavior. Despite this, it was possible to conclude that the finite element method is a tool that helps to understand complex problems with the ability to reduce time and cost in analysis, resulting in more efficient and less invasive medical procedures and treatments, providing a higher quality of life for the patient.
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