Águas pluviais urbanas: integração da drenagem sustentável ao Plano Diretor de Desenvolvimento Urbano (PDU) em Guararapes/SP
Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto
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The man-water relationship has passed through different moments over the years, and the current rejection for its presence in urban spaces reflects the hygienist policies. Water in urban environments was pointed as a vector of epidemics and bad smell, what was related to lack of maintenance and disuse of the system, resulting in stormwater and sewage flowing together though the streets. The solution, at the time, was to hide and pipe it, actions that cause impacts till nowadays. The traditional systems, beside the high rate of urbanization and soil imperviousness, are insufficient to the great volume drained, causing floods and damages. Alternative approaches to stormwater management have shown superior results, such as the complementary application of Best Management Practices (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) principles. This master's research focuses on developing an approach in which Cities Master Plan consider stormwater and sustainable drainage among land uses, integrating it into urban environment. As a result, a study case was carried out to apply the approach in Guararapes/SP, a State of São Paulo’s small city. From the definition of the problem tree, guidelines for solving the problem related to floods were pointed out. Among the guidelines, the need for legislative and community development for environmental education focused on the impact of cities on the environment and updating and correlation of municipal legislation prevailed, with the aid of sustainable urban development materials and the use of alternative approaches to stormwater drainage. Most Brazilian cities have seen urban water management as object of complementary plans, making efficient and premeditated implementation difficult when developing urban scenarios, often generating environmental, social and economic impacts. In addition to demonstrating applicability in different Brazilian contexts, this research explains the need for legislative updates at the three government levels, as well as the inclusion of sustainable urban discussions related to current contexts. Stormwater drainage was used as the theme of the work and demonstrates an educational and spatial need for its implementation, meaning as a reference for discussion to be based on various themes related to urban spaces. The intercommunication of cities’ sectors is necessary when looking for improvement and applicability of foundations that apply to a context as multiple as cities are.
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