Dupla excepcionalidade: identificação de altas habilidades ou superdotação em adultos com deficiência visual
Silva, Josana Carla Gomes da
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The giftedness is not an immutable condition. They are also not conditioned by characteristics such as race, gender, ethnicity, age, or social class. Sometimes, giftedness occurs concomitantly with other specificities, such as: disability, disorders, or syndromes. In this case, it is called twice exceptionally. Seeking to study this phenomenon, the research aims to identify giftedness in adults with visual impairment. The specific objective is to verify whether the instruments applied – Questionário de Identificação de Indicadores de Altas habilidades/superdotação - Adultos (QIIAHSD-Adultos) and Questionário de Identificação de Indicadores de Altas habilidades/superdotação – Adultos – 2ª fonte (QIIAHSD-Adultos – 2ª fonte)– are effective for this audience. The research has an exploratory and descriptive approach. The study included a field diary, electronic forms related to the instruments (QIIAHSD-Adultos and QIIAHSD-Adultos – 2ª fonte) and an interview script. The research is divided into a pilot study and a main study. The pilot study was carried-out in person before the COVID-19 pandemic, in a city in the countryside of the State of São Paulo. Five people with visual impairment participated as 1st source respondents and three people as 2nd source respondents, aged between 18 and 80 years. The main study took place remotely, through electronic forms and interviews. Altogether, there were 14 participants, aged between 21 and 80 years. Results indicate that one pilot study participant was identified giftedness indicators. In the main study, four participants with giftedness indicators were identified. The data show that enabling postures negatively interfere in the development of people giftedness and visual impairment, which can make their abilities invisible. Some participants indicated that they were seen as dependent people. It was possible to verify that the school and the family have fundamental roles in the general development of these people. These factors can influence negatively, generating trauma, or positively, helping to develop high self-esteem, self-concept, and resilience. The data showed that, in the case of the women who participated in the study, there may be stigmas related to gender and disability, hiding their potential, nullifying their achievements, or reinforcing the belief that their abilities are the result of a lot of effort. The study also demonstrates that the gay person with visual impairment who has high potential suffers more than a double stigma. It is a unique condition, which can lead to developmental dissociation. From the application of the QIIAHSD-Adultos and QIIAHSD-Adultos – 2ª fonte instruments, it was verified that, although they are well elaborated and reach the goal of identifying gifted people, they have some weaknesses, including: the need of the questions aimed at the public with twice exceptionality and the adequacy of developmental concepts and specificities of typical giftedness and visual impairment people. Thus, adaptations in the instruments used in the research are recommended for future studies.
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