Diversidade dos Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica Ombrófila Densa.
Yamada, Magda Viviane
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This work aimed to describe the Braconidae diversity in remainders of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and to verify if there are patterns of distribution along a latitudinal gradient and at low and high altitudes. Since the Braconidae community might be considered an exception to the established patterns of diversity and the scarceness of studies focusing the group, they were chosen in this study. Besides, they have a very important role in the balance of the ecosystems; they are natural enemies of phytophagous insects considered crop pests. In order to sample the largest proportion of the resident fauna in the sites three sampling techniques were used; two passive (Malaise and Moericke traps) and one active ("sweeping" the vegetation). The sample efforts and periods were standardized to avoid possible seasonal influences. This work is part of the BIOTA/FAPESP Project: "Richness and Diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic forest - the Eastern Brazilian Rain Forest" and included 18 sample sites from the Northeast to the Southern Brazil. The Richness Index and Relative Density were used to determine the conservation status of the forest remainders sampled. The Braconidae community did not demonstrate a pattern of distribution along the latitudinal gradient and also no predominant distribution in the two altitude classes was found; however, the sites in higher altitudes showed a more homogeneous and diverse fauna. Many of the entomofauna surveys in Neotropical region allowed the description of new species and new records; here, we present three new records and the description of four new species of Alabagrus Enderlein (Braconidae, Agathidinae) to Brazil. It is suggested that Peruíbe (SP), Linhares (ES), Porto Seguro (BA), Santa Luzia de Itanhy (SE), Recife (PE) and João Pessoa (PB) are places under influence of anthropic activities, and Intervales (SP) and Nova Iguaçu (RJ) are the most preserved. Doryctinae and Alysiinae are suggested as bioindicators of disturbance and environmental conservation, respectively. Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Hormiinae and Rogadinae were assigned as indicators for studies on anthropic impacts assessment in the Atlantic Rain Forest biome due to their wide distribution. The fragment size was not correlated with the abundance and richness of Braconidae specimens. The more efficient sampling method was "sweeping" the vegetation for the Braconidae fauna.