A pesca de iscas vivas na região estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia/SP : análise dos aspectos sociais, econômicos e ambientais como subsídio ao manejo dos recursos e ordenamento da atividade
Beccato, Maria Angelica Barbosa
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As it happens in some places of rich biodiversity, which offer touristic attractions, we can notice in the Estuarine Lagoon Complex of Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida SP/Brazil a rise in the number of tourists, especially the ones who practise sport fishing, offering the residents a new consumer market. The live bait is requested by this market and its fishery started to happen frequently among the artisanal fishermen of the region. The main captured species are the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus shmitti (Burkenroad, 1936) and pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez Farfante, 1967) and Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817). Studies on the socio- economical and environmental aspects are necessary to the management of resources and regulation of the activity, as it is relatively new. To a better understanding of live bait fishing dynamics, nine field trips were made between May 2006 and July 2008, when structured and semi-structured questionnaires among the live bait fishermen and other people who take part in the activity were done. The information on fishing production and its profit were obtained through fishery production forms filled in by a group of fishermen in the year of 2007. The places where the fishing happened were georeferred. The results indicated a total number of 80 live bait fishermen in the estuarine region of Cananéia, distributed in 10 distinct communities. The search for the resource is related to the commercialization, done directly with the amateur fishermen. They buy the live bait in the places they are located or during the fishing practice in the different communities which edge the estuarine complex. In all visited communities there are fishermen who have a consolidated clientele and so they have the live bait throughout the year; and fishermen who trade the live bait as a complement of income, so they fish just when there is abundance and they don t have to search in distant places. The most used tackle by the fishermen is the gerival which was introduced in the 80s. Because of it easy usage and individuality, a lot of fishermen stared to fish live bait in region. The aluminium boats are very much used by the fishermen. In order to apply the fishing strategies, the live bait fishermen know the shrimp movements in the estuarine and the abiotic factors which interfere in the estuarine dynamic (rain falltidal movement-salinity and turbidity). The captured shrimps are kept in hatcheries immersed in the estuarine waters to be sold alive. However, they can only survive for 5 days in the cage and when dead, they cannot be used for any purpose. So, the fishermen s effort on fishing must be linked to the commercialization to avoid wasting of money and time. The nautical centres have a strong influence on live bait communities because they gather a great number of amateur fishermen and buyers. The live bait fishing can be profitable when the opportunity of commercialization is guaranteed and frequent. The data gathered in this essay contributed to the making of the recommendation which involves: an intensive plan of communication, an enlargement on the diagnosis on fishing activity, the continuity of fishing production monitoring, the management of resources by using technologies on keeping captured shrimps, the possibility of having a special license for the breeding of native shrimps.