Efeitos da exposição à fração solúvel da gasolina em parâmetros bioquímicos e fisiológicos de Prochilodus lineatus
Simonato, Juliana Delatim
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the water-soluble fraction of gasolina (WSFG) to the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. The WSFG was prepared by adding gasoline to water (1:4) this mixture was then exposed to intense sunlight for 6h, simulating a gasoline spill in tropical conditions. After that the upper insoluble phase was discharged and the WSFG was collected. Fish were exposed for 6, 24 and 96h to the WSFG diluted to 5% (EXP group) or only to water (control group or CTR). The following parameters were analyzed: biochemical (antioxidants and EROD) of gills and liver, hematologic, osmo-ionic, metabolic, endocrine (cortisol) besides the density and distribution of chloride cells (CC) and the activity of gills Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). The increased in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity indicated phase I and II biotransformation of the compounds present in the WSFG in both organs. The activation of CYP1A in the gills pointed out the importance of this organ in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. The liver showed an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content at 24 and 96 h exposure to WSFG and the increase in the activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) after 96 h exposure. The gills showed an activation of the antioxidant defenses with an increased CAT activity soon after 6h exposure and an increase in GSH content after 24h exposure. However, for both organs the antioxidants defense was not enough to prevent oxidative damage, as shown by the occurrence of lipid peroxidation in liver and gills after 6 and 96h of exposure, respectively. The WSFG also promoted hemolysis, as indicated by the changes in the hematological parameters analyzed and an increase in plasma K+. Fish showed a secondary stress response, noted by the occurrence of hyperglycemia in all the periods of exposure, despite no significant increase in plasma cortisol. The WSFG also lead to an increase in the density of CC, in the activity of NKA, in plasma concentrations of Na+ and in the osmolarity in fish exposed to WSFG for 24h. Taken together these results showed that the compounds present in the WSFG interfere on the functioning of vital organs such as liver and gills of Prochilodus lineatus.