Estudo alelopático de espécies da família Myrtaceae do cerrado
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The plants release primary and secondary metabolites in the environment that may influence the development of adjacent vegetation, this interference phenomenon is called allelopathy. It is recognized as an important ecological process because it interferes with the structure, distribution, composition and dynamics of plant communities. Studies on allelopathic interactions may be useful in the search for natural phytotoxins are produced by plants or microorganisms to be used as natural herbicides, more specific and less harmful to the environment. According to floristic survey conducted by IBGE, Myrtaceae family is one of the major in the cerrado ecosystem. This study attempted to clarify the following issues: species of Myrtaceae family present in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) exhibit allelopathic potential? There is a similar allelopathic response within genera? Among the active species, which is most promising for starting a bioprospecting? Some of these species has potential as a herbicide for use in agroforestry or organic production of food? To answer these questions were conducted experiments of seed germination and seedling growth of target species cultivated and weedy, and chemical extraction of active compounds in leaves of Myrcia tomentosa. The leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Campomanesia pubescens, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia klotzschiana, Eugenia myrcianthes, Eugenia punicifolia, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, Psidium laruotteanum and Psidium rufum were collected , cleaned, crushed and stored in plastic bags until use. In the first stage, were carried out the germination and growth bioassays using aqueous extracts of leaf in a concentration of 10% (w / v). We selected three target species, Lactuca sativa and Solanum lycopersicum, both eudicotyledonous and a monocotyledonous Allium cepa. The extracts were applied to all Myrtaceae species compared with the control (distilled water). In the second phase, bioassays were carried out using aqueous extracts of leaves at concentrations of 5 and 10% (w / v). We selected as target species three weeds Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia. The leaf extracts of B. salicifolius, M. multiflora, M. splendens and M. tomentosa were compared to negative control (distilled water) and positive (herbicide Oxyfluorfen). In the third stage were carried out biotests germination, growth, and coleoptile of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to direct chemical extraction of active compounds of M. tomentosa. The extractions were carried out using dried leaves powdered and organic solvents of different polarity, the extracts were fractionated using chromatographic column and purified by HPLC. The isolated and purified compounds were identified in RMN13C and RMN1H, by comparison of spectra. The results showed that aqueous extracts of twelve out of fifteen donor species evaluated showed allelopathic activity and each species showed a distinct behavior regarding the allelopathic activity, no grouping by taxonomic proximity. Evaluating the four species most active on weeds species, was detected the potential and efficiency of the extracts, since these were more toxic to weeds species than the herbicide. The leaf extracts of M. tomentosa stood out for demonstrating high activity even at low concentrations, so was chemical extraction from powdered of leaves of M. tomentosa were isolated two compounds from the ethyl acetate extract: juglanin and avicularin, the difference between ix both is the presence of one hydroxyl attached to carbon 3' in avicularin molecule, this difference has an phytotoxic effect more pronounced in the juglanin. This paper is the first report of the presence of the flavonoids kaempferol (juglanin) and quercetin (avicularin) in species of Myrtaceae of cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and gave foundation for future studies on bioprospecting of the M. tomentosa, which did not find any reports of allelopathic studies, fractionation and identification of chemical compounds.