Padrão espacial e temporal das mudanças de uso da terra e sua relação com indicadores da paisagem. Estudo de caso: bacia hidrográfica do médio rio Mogi Guaçu Superior (SP)
Fushita, Angela Terumi
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The human activities are continually altering the ecosystems constituting an important environmental modifier agent, promoting changes in balance and dynamics of the landscape pattern and process. There are several examples of this interference, however the understanding of dimension and effects of human activities and the measures to aid in decision make are still incipient. In that sense, the watershed basin has been used as a physical-temporal component for natural resources planning, being supported by the use of landscape indicators, that has been proposed for better understanding the human activity influence in the ecosystems dynamics. This work analyzed the physical, socioeconomic and biotic factors interaction, in the integrity of the landscape, in the context of the watershed basin through indicators, between 1989 and 2009. The study area was the Medium-Superior Mogi-Guacu river watershed basin, inserted in the northeast area of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This area was sub-divided in three geomorphological units (Cuestas Basalticas, Depressao Periferica and Planalto Ocidental) and in 12 geopolitical units, referring the municipal districts of its inclusion. It was proceeded the landscape environmental characterization and the use of the following indicators: topographical characteristics; landscape pattern; landscape structure (Landscape richness, Landscape diversity; Landscape naturalness (Urbanity and Hemeroby); landscape fragmentation, and the Index of Human Appropriation of the Liquid Primary Productivity (HANPP), considering the total area of the watershed basin (UGB), the geopolitical units (UGP) and thegeomorphological units (UGM). The data acquisition happened for field risings, bibliographical and of official documental sources. It was used LANDSAT TM-5 1989, 1999 and 2009 satellite images for land-use mapping, that subsidized the analysis of the landscape indicators, following specific literature. The correlation among the indicators was tested by models of linear regression and validated by Bootstrap method. It was observed a positive relation between HANPP and hemeroby; a weak positive relation between HANPP and urbanity and HANPP and steepness; a tiny positive relation between HANPP and slope orientation; a weak negative relation between HANPP and net road influence, and between HANPP and distance from highways; and tiny positive relation between HANPP and distance of urban settlements. The smallest values of HANPP were obtained in 1999 for all the landscape units. The landscape metric didn't show a significant correlation with HANPP, however, flotation of the values is verified among the years and between the units. For 1999 and for UGP-7 (municipal district of Luis Antonio) and UGP-11 (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro) registered the metric values that allow to infer better.