Efeito de agromineral e vinhaça em atributos químicos de dois tipos de solos
Lopes, Otavio Mitsuhiro Motizuki
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Can vinasse accelerate the change of minerals in rock powder for obtaining fertilizer, with utilization of residues from alcohol agro and mining industries? Answering this question was the main objective of this study. So, it was carried out two experiments in a laboratory in a completely randomized set using PVC columns in which we reproduced the 0-50 cm layers of a very clayey Red Oxisol and a Quartzipsamment. In the first test, with duration of 30 days, it was evaluated the application form of the mixture into the soil. It were tested incorporation of basalt powder previously in soil and incubation of basalt powder and vinasse in the laboratory for 24 hours and then applied to the soil. In Red Oxisol were used two doses of basalt powder (0 and 2,0 t ha-1), a dose of vinasse (200 m3 ha-1) and as a control, a dose of water (200 m3 ha-1) using the same amounts of rock powder. For this test, samples were collected from the surface of the columns in 1, 7, 15 and 30 days of experiment. In the second test, with duration of 90 days, using the two soils, were added three doses of basalt powder (0, 2,0 and 4,0 t ha-1) and a dose of vinasse (200 m3 ha-1). The control was made by treatments with water (200 m3 ha-1) with the same doses of rock powder. Samples were collected on the surface of each column in 1, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days and at the end of the experiment, in botton and in the leachate. For the surface samples in the first and second tests and the botton in the second test, we determined the levels of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, S), micronutrients (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn), H + Al, Al, organic matter, pH in CaCl2, sum of bases, base saturation and cation exchange capacity. In the leachate were determined Ca, Mg, K, SO4, Fe, Mn and Zn. In the first test, the evaluation of the application form of the mixture indicated that there was no difference between the use of basalt powder and vinasse incubated for 24 hours or previously incorporation of rock powder in the soil and then application of vinasse. In the second test, there were significant effects of solvent and soil in the surface layer, with variations in the levels of the attributes analyzed over time. The dose of basalt powder was not significant for most attributes analyzed, except for the levels of boron and iron. On balance levels at the beginning and end of the experiment, the results suggest that sorption phenomena with neoformed mineral phases or organic acids may have occurred. The mixture of vinasse and rock powder is an alternative fertilizer and reduces the consumption of soluble fertilizers, but further studies are needed to evaluate the sorption phenomena and availability of cations in the mixture.