Fracionamento de extratos bioativos de Drimys brasiliensis Miers e identificação de compostos com atividade fitotóxica e inseticida
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Along its evolutionary history, plants have developed biosynthetic routes to synthesize and accumulate a wide variety of secondary metabolites, which respond to the environment characteristics where they occur. The studies about these compounds effects on nearby organisms constitute the field of allelopathy. Allelopathy is an important phenomenon in plant chemical ecology that involves bioactive compounds, from which one can produce natural pesticides that would be more specific, less harmful to the environment and applied to a model of sustainable agriculture. Drimys brasiliensis Miers is found in the Atlantic Forest and in the Cerrado domain. It s chemically characterized by the presence of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and flavonoids, with great use potential in the pharmaceutical industry. There are few studies about the allelopathic potential of D.brasiliensis and its secondary metabolites to act as natural pesticides, specialy as herbicide or insecticide. Thus, in the first chapter we studied the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of D.brasiliensis according to the seasonality and different plant organs. The phytotoxic effect of D.brasiliensis isinfluenced by the period of collection, with more evident activity in leaves collected in the dry season. Aqueous extracts from leaves, roots and stems of D.brasiliensis showed activity on crop plants, and all organs are a promising source in the search of phytotoxic compounds. In the second chapter, we investigated the phytotoxic potential of crude extract fractions from D. brasiliensis roots and leaves on weeds. The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined. In chapter three, was carried a bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive compounds present in D.brasiliensis roots. Four drimanes sesquiterpenes were isolated from bioactive fractions of roots, determined as polygodial, polygodial 12 α- acetal, dendocarbin L and (+) fuegin. The polygodial caused phytotoxic effects on wheat coleoptile and on crop and weed species. In the last chapter, the effect of the hexane fraction and polygodial obtained from D.brasiliensis roots was evaluated on Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy (black citrus aphid), and both caused toxicity, with high mortality on nymphs and adults stages of this aphid. The polygodial, isolated for the first time in the roots of D. brasiliensis, may be the primarily responsible for the biological activities detected in this study. The herein presented data allow the indication of this compound as a potential biopesticide.