Estrutura das comunidades fito e zooplanctônicas do Reservatório Guarapiranga (São Paulo) e relações com a hidrodinâmica e a eutrofização
Santos, Renata Martins dos
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Reservoirs are ecologically complex and heterogenous environments subject to impacts caused by increased human activities in its hydrographic basin, causing among other disorders, the eutrophication. The phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic communities can be used as bioindicators for responding quickly to changes that occur in water bodies. The aim this study was to analyze the phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic communities in Guarapiranga reservoir in relation to different ecological parameters searching to correlate them to hydrodynamic factors and eutrophication. Intensive studies were performed with sampling surveys in both horizontal and vertical axis. Physical and chemical characteristics and also the trophic status of the reservoir were evaluated, and the phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic communities were studied in relation to species richness, population densities, biomass, secondary production, diversity, uniformity and dominance. The Guarapiranga reservoir is a heterogeneous water body with a small oligotrophic portion, some mesotrophic portions and a larger part eutrophic with high richness of planktonic organisms. The results from two diel cycles characterized the system studied in this period as polymitic, with thermal stratifications interspersed by periods of partial circulation. The air temperature and wind speed were the most important meteorological factors that altered the thermal structure of the reservoir. The phytoplankton was dominated by the cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa delicatissima West and West and the zooplankton by microzooplankton (rotifers and Cyclopoida nauplii). The most eutrophic reservoir compartments were Parelheiros, Embu-Mirim and Guavirutuba. The rotifer Conochlius unicornis Rousselet and the cladoceran Bosminopsis deitersi Richard were indicators of Embu-Guaçu oligo/mesotrophic compartment. The high biomass of Filinia longiseta Ehrenberg in Parelheiros indicated tolerance of this species to extremely eutrophic conditions. The Guarapiranga reservoir is a system with high secondary productivity when compared to other environments of different trophic degree, having as dominant groups the Cyclopoida and rotifers. It was found that Guarapiranga reservoir has high secondary production, but the great load of nutrients needs to be stopped in order to reverse the eutrophication process and to recover the water quality of this important water resource.