A comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em reservatórios do médio e baixo Rio Tietê (SP) e em lagos da bacia do médio Rio Doce (MG)
Tavares, Katia Sendra
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Macrophytes have a fundamental role in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems due to their high primary productivity, participation in the nutrient cycling, and interactions with many other components of the system. Many species of macrophytes can be bioindicator of the trophic state or succession stage of the system. In the present work the macrophyte communities of twelve lakes in the Middle Rio Doce (MG) and a cascade of six reservoirs (SP) were analysed, comparing systems naturally and artificially fragmented. Four sampling expeditions to the Rio Doce system and three to the Tietê were performed during the 2001 2002 period. The macrophyte species present were recorded, photographed and collected for herborization. The community was analysed in relation to the species richness, dominant species, the frequence of occurrence and the species composition similarity, intra and inter lake and reservoir systems. The relationship between species richness and lake morphometry was also analised. Macrophyte biomass was determined for selected stands, in order to verify the existence of temporal variations. In the lakes of Middle Rio Doce system a total of 53 species were registered, belonging to 25 genera and 23 families. The occurrence of Habenaria fastor Hoene (Orchidaceae) in this system of lakes was recorded for the first time. The highest richness occurred in the lakes Barra and Verde. Species composition varied considerably among lakes and between periods. No statistically significant relationships were found between species richness and variables related to lake morphometry, although a tendency of increase in the species richness as a function of the increase in the area and perimeter of the lakes was observed. In Tietê reservoirs a total of 48 species were found, belonging to 26 genus and 22 families. The species composition in the first three reservoirs (Middle Tietê) differed from that on the last three reservoirs (Low Tietê). The relationship among the species richness and reservoir morphometry was not statistically significant, however there was a tendency of decreasing richness as the reservoir area or perimeter increased. Twenty three species were shared among both systems; 23 exclusively on lakes of Middle Rio Doce and 18 exclusively in on Tietê reservoirs. The families Cyperaceae and Onagraceae were the ones represented by the highest number of species in both systems. Marked differences were found between the studied systems. The macrophyte species richness was higher in the Middle Rio Doce lakes than in the Tietê reservoirs. In the lakes the increase in the area and perimeter were factors directly related to the increase in species richness whereas in the reservoirs this relationship was inverse. Biomass of macrophytes in selected stands varied greatly between periods, however total biomass per areal unity was similar, although the highest values were recorded in Nova Avanhandava and Ibitinga reservoirs. The results of this study have indicated that the lakes of Middle Rio Doce being a naturally fragmented system, ancient and stable, have a higher macrophyte diversity, whereas the Tietê reservoirs, recently and artificially fragmented and also with greater instability have a lower diversity. Also, the species richness in the reservoirs appeared to be not directly related to the area and perimeter, variables which are representative of their most propitious habitats in natural systems.