Planejamento urbano e conservação ambiental. Estudo de caso: Goiânia-GO.
Mota, Luciana Costa
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The main objective of this work is contribute to Goiânia city environmental planning, with special focus in fragile (sensitive) areas, in valley areas. We started with biophysical characterization of the area, identifying and delimitating, in the Urban Zone (ZU) and Expanded Urban Zone (ZEU), fragile (sensitive) areas (areas with medium and high Natural Erosion Potential PNE and/or areas related to the hidrological cycle - floodplans). We also identified federal and municipal (county) regulations, and the proposals of Goiânia Director Plans for valley areas. Then we evaluated their adequability, foccusing environmental conservation. Finally, based on actual diagnosis of land use in valley areas, Environmental Protected Zones I (ZPA-I) associated to hidrography and the fragile (sensitive) areas within these areas, we evaluated the applicability of laws and plans for valley areas during (along) the city development and grow. Evaluating Legal rules and planning guidelines, we identified that since 1960, permanent preservation areas with at minimum 50 meters from the river flood height, should receive land uses compatible with environmental conservation (recreational, cultural, environmental education, park etc). ZU e ZEU presented 40.73% of areas with medium and high PNE in valley areas, representing 59.69% of valley areas, and 22.01% of that are legally protected by ZPAs-I. The ZPas-I represent 14.62% of ZU and ZEU (49.22% of it are represented by areas of medium and high PNE) and have only 44.21% of natural vegetation which 10.71% are within properties. Properties areas already occuppy 26.62% of ZPAs-I. In valley areas only 34.81% are vegetated, and in valley areas legally protected by ZPAs-I, 47.46% have natural vegetation. In valleys´s fragile areas 31.66% are vegetated. When those areas are protected by ZPAs-I, vegetated areas increase to 40.71%. The floodplans (within valley and legally protected by ZPAs-I) are 56.54% covered by vegetation which 13.88% are within properties. The results evidenciated that valley areas are structurally and functionally fragile (sensitive) and municipal plans and legal regulations for these areas are adequated. However, regulations measurements for buffer zones (ZPAs-I) usually don´t cover all fragille areas (areas with medium and high PNE). Finnaly the study identified insufficient urban instruments (Director Plans and land use regulations) to efectivelly protect fragile areas during (along) the city development and grow. Even dough, fragile areas within valleys, legally protected by ZPAs-I, presented better environmental conservation conditions than the others fragile areas.