Estudo da microbiota edáfica da área cárstica de São Desidério-BA e avaliação do seu potencial celulolítico para possíveis aplicações em microbiologia ambiental
Paula, Caio César Pires de
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The cave environments are oligotrophic and have specific characteristics that determine the native microbiota. Few studies have investigated the composition and function of soil microbiota of subterranean environments. This study aimed to expand the knowledge on the cave microbiota, discuss the functional role of the microbiota in these environments, isolate and select fungal strains with biotechnological potential for the degradation of cellulose. Soil epigean environment and two poins inside the cave Catão, São Desiderio BA, were sampled. The amount of total organic carbon, carbon and nitrogen in the microbial biomass and the microbial density was evaluated in the soil. All strains were evaluated for the activities of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase and total cellulase by submerged fermentation. Of these three strains of Aspergillus strains, one strain standard, and a Penicillium the process of solid state fermentation using wheat bran as substrate were selected. We observed a significant difference between epigeal and subterranean environment in relation to physical, chemical and biological soil parameters evaluated. We obtained 20 isolates belonging of the genus Aspergillus (SDC1.1, SDC 1.2, SDC 1.4, SDC 1.6, SDC 2.4, SDC 2.6, SDC 2.8, SDC 2.10, SDC 2.11, SDC 2.12), Penicillium (SDC 1.3, SDC 1.7, SDC 2.2, SDC 2.7, SDC2.9, SDC 2.13), Trichoderma (SDC 2.3), Scopulariopses (SDC 2.1) e Purpureocillium (SDC 2.5). Of all isolates showed 90% cellulolytic activity. During the submerged fermentation endoglucanase activity showed maximum values of 6.39 IU/mL in a strain of Aspergillus sp6 and maximum total cellulase activity was 1.7 IU/ml for Aspergillus sp8 strain. The strain Aspergillus sp6 showed maximum β- glucosidase activity of 13.67 IU/mL. Compared to solid-state fermentation, the Aspergillus sp6 and Aspergillus sp8 strains stood out compared to mutant strain Aspergillus niger 3T5B8, with values of endoglucanase and total cellulase activity higher whole with a lower protein content in their enzymatic extracts. From these resulados, we conclude that the cave environment presents singularities compared to epigean environment which probably allows you to select naturally microorganisms that use alternative sources for energy and nutrients.