A nova política de financiamento de pesquisas: reforma no estado e no novo papel do CNPq
Kato, Fabíola Bouth Grello
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This study investigates the role of new and recent CNPq agency as advisor and financier of new policies and practices of research in our country based on the analysis of notices published by that body in the period 2004-2011 and its relationship with economic policy identity adopted in Brazil since the 2000s. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that produced this paradigm shift in research funding from CNPq seeking to establish the possible mediations between the economic policy adopted in Brazil from the 1990s and the policy choices made in managements FHC (1995 -2002) and Lula (2003-2010) and identify the role that this agency complies with public policy agenda in the country's productive. The methodology used was the literature and documents, having as the main primary legislation with emphasis on the laws 11.196/05 (Lei do Bem) and 10.973/04 (Law of Technological Innovation), the creation of the Science Sector Funds and Technology (1999); books or memories of the four National Conferences on Science, Technology and Innovation (1985, 2002, 2005 and 2010), the Master Plan for Reforming the State, the guidelines of the Industrial, Technological and Foreign Trade (PITCE), published in 2003, the Productive Development Policy (PDP), 2008, the Plan of Action for Science, Technology and Innovation (2007-2010), the edicts research support from CNPq published between 2004-2011 (422 calls) and Institutional Management Reports CNPq period 2004-2011. We hypothesized that the policy adopted by CNPq notices from the year 2000 can be analyzed based on economic and political reforms that the world and Brazil are suffering from the 1990s, mediated by interim measures, laws and ordinances materialize the country's entry in this circuit financial valuation in order to make the country attractive from the standpoint of economic and legal foreign investment. The empirical indicated that from the 2000s, with a strong emphasis between the years 2003-2004, there is a radical change in the policy of public funding of research from CNPq, expressed by policy notices, which is characterized: by induction applied research and the development of technological research and innovation with strong potential for immediate application to the market; mediated by academic evaluation processes extremely hard, and short-prazistas as requiring the production of knowledge preset time at the time of contracting the projects strong hierarchy between areas of knowledge. The study indicated that the options were the economic policy of the country which have produced changes in the paradigm of public funding of research from CNPq. While Cardoso prioritized during the opening of the economy to the international market that demanded political and legal preparation for the attraction of foreign direct investment, seeking to show the country how great square stock exchange, ie, the option to turn the country into a platform for emerging financial valuation and the decline of productive investment in the country conditioned the extraction of real income of society and constraining our capacity for growth, investment, employment generation and income. Analyses of Brazilian economic policy in FHC and Lula indicate that there was a continuity and even its intensification. Driven by a new growth agenda of the country, given the international and political alliances with national business, the Lula government opted to maintain the agenda of orthodox economic management, but look for alternatives brought growth and expansion of productive investments long term. His political project initiated in 2003 was expressed in a more fully the implementation of a new industrial policy. Were these policy options that distinguish, in part, the government of his predecessor, especially in the educational field: expansion of the public university structure by physical expansion of IFES and the vacancies in the program MEETING, ProUni and UAB; regarding your collection practical economic policy, resumed the National Industrial Policy (PITCE and PDP) with a focus on innovation and cooperative relationship between state-university-market. This new place CNPq gave it strategic importance in the construction of a national pact between university-State market (financial capital), working in the training of human resources for promotion of various types and levels of scholarships, increasing grants for researchers in companies, continuous increase of its budget for scholarships postgraduate, publishing notices to fostering individual projects, groups or thematic networks of scientific and technological support, expansion and dissemination of new programs to assist these guidelines, all this combined a new form of financing that has to induce new practices for the development of research and knowledge production in universities with strong budgetary hierarchy between areas of knowledge.