A contribuição do jogo teatral para o desenvolvimento da criança pré-escolar: uma análise na perspectiva histórico-cultural.
Boriollo, Beatriz de Cássia
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The intention of this work was to investigate how the activities of theater, carried out in the pre-schools of Infant Education could contribute to the child s development. The approach used in this investigation was the Cultural history of the School of Vigotski and its collaborators. The first discussed point was the meaning of creation and how this could happen in the infancy. The second step was to study the child s development through this theoretical referential prioritizing the concepts that should guide the work with theater in the Infant Education. They are: the concept of the main activity and the concept of the Zone of the Next Development. Understanding the concept of the main activity as the activity responsible for significant changes in the main psychic functions, since the main activity in the pre-school is the role-play, I emphasize its characteristics and differentiate it from the theatrical activity. The contribution of the role-play and the theatrical activities to the child s development lies in the fact that they propitiate the child to carry out tasks and to live situations that he normally still could not live using his psychic functions in development. Thus, the work of the teacher in the theatrical activities and the role-play must be to orient in order to create the Zone of the next Development of the child. The next step was to investigate how the theatrical activity and the role-play happen in the Infant Education. This way I opted to carry out a qualitative research, through semi-structured interviews with eight teachers of Infant Education of three municipal schools (EMEIs) of São Carlos. The analysis indicated that the work with theater performed by the interviewed teachers is little valued and is based on the concept of Theater, Education and Child of each professional. It was also pointed the lack of autonomy of the professionals and a theoretical background that can improve the pedagogical practice in relation to the theatrical activity as well as to the role play. The need of an initial training of the teacher and a continued training is finally discussed to justify the theatrical work as a pedagogical procedure, mainly, as an activity that creates the Zone of Next Development.