Risco e resiliência em escolares : um estudo comparativo com múltiplos instrumentos
Garcia, Silvana Canalhe
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With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of risk and resilience factors involved in child development, this study had the goal of identifying these factors among students from low-income families. The characteristic of the present research was descriptive and exploratory, searching for correlations among risk factors that hinder development and resilience factors that this population may present. Multiple instruments were used to allow for statistical analyses, which are still little explored by the Brazilian literature. A total of 107 children (3rd and 4th grades) from an elementary school in an upstate city of São Paulo responded the Resilience Scale and Parental Styles Inventory. The mothers (57) responded the following: Rutter s A2 Behavior Scale, Family Environment Resources Inventory, Adverse Events Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Information Registry Social-economic Level and Parental Styles Inventory. Academic performance was measured by SARESP (Academic Achievement System of Sao Paulo State). Results indicated families economically less favored, with poor social support. Most common adverse events were associated with economic problems, and difficulties in parental relationships. SARESP data showed that 28.57% of the children presented low academic achievement. Over 80% of the children evaluated themselves presenting various resilience factors, such positive selfperception, good social skills and adequate external support. Parental style, assessed by the children and by mothers, was considered of risk. Almost half of the mothers (46%) reported that their children presented high frequency of emotional/behavior problems. For this group, parental styles and behaviors were found to be significantly more negative and academic achievement was inferior when compared with the less problems group. Five children (8% of the total) presented good academic achievement in spite of high number of adverse events suffered. These children could, thus, be considered resilient. Negative parental practices and behaviors were considered risk factors for its correlation with emotional/behavioral problems, and school supervision from parents and good academic achievement were considered protective factors. The need for methodological improvement to advance resiliency as a construct is discussed.