Validação de intervenções de enfermagem para a alta de pacientes submetidos à prostatectomia
Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da
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The problems that are most frequently mentioned in the literature as causes of increase of the prostate are the benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Although conservative alternatives exist for the treatment of these pathologies, the surgical procedure is still a frequent option of treatment. In this context, nursing team assumes fundamental role, with activities in the whole perioperative period, including the preparation for the discharge of the patients undergone prostatectomy. This descriptive study, developed in 3 stages, aimed to identify and to validate nursing interventions for the preparation for the discharge of the patients undergone prostatectomy. In the first stage, an integrative review of the literature was accomplished in order to identify nursing interventions for the preparation for the discharge of the patients undergone prostatectomy. In the second stage, the model proposed by Fehring (1987) for validation of content of nursing diagnoses was adapted, in order to obtain the opinion of experts about the adaptation of those interventions. In the third stage the validated nursing interventions were presented, following by the studies in that they were identified and the level of evidence of them. Twenty four studies were included in the revision and 15 of them were selected in PubMed, 8 in CINAHL and 1 in Cochrane Library. Regarding the studies types, update studies were prevalent as well as quantitative non experimental one. Regarding the evidence level, 45,83% were classified in the level IV, 29,17% in the level VI and only 8,33% in the level I and II. Ninety three interventions were identified and organized in 11 thematic categories: general conducts, urinary catheter care, prevention of infection, nutrition and hydration care, return to the activities, hygiene care, care in the administration of medicines, teaching on signs and expected symptoms in the postoperative period, signs and symptoms of complication and conduct, exercises for pelvic musculature and care for the control of the pain. The supply of information to the patients by nursing team was the main focus of the authors of the descriptive studies. Thirty eight experts considered all of the interventions very appropriate to the situation", except an intervention related to the orientation of patients and family to phone the surgeon in case of strong pain inside the 24 hours after the surgery, which was considered "relatively appropriate to the situation". It was observed among the Brazilian experts the frequent concern with the relatives' inclusion in the preparation for the discharge of the patients undergone prostatectomy. After the validation by the experts, that resulted also in the reorganization of the interventions, it was obtained 84 interventions distributed in the 11 categories; 43 of those with evidence level IV, 36 with evidence level VI, 2 with evidence level I, 2 with evidence level III and 1 with evidence level II. To offer a group of validated nursing interventions for the discharge of the patients undergone prostatectomy can subsidize the elaboration of protocols and/or specific and individualized care plans, and thus, to favor nursing assistance and consequently the recovery and quality of life of these patients.