Contribuições da análise da atividade e do modelo social para a inclusão no trabalho de pessoas com deficiência
Simonelli, Angela Paula
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In this study, we meant to analyze disable people s inclusion policies and actions regarding to Brazilian work market. The Law 8213/91 and the Decree 3298/99 have been based on the biomedical model and have directed the actions in Brazil. The Legislation determines reservation of market for the people with disabilities. However, it does not present any sort of methodological actions concerning inclusion. The biomedical model understands disability in a way that it does not empower effective inclusion. Therefore, this view points towards assisting actions that do not guarantee education, knowledge or professional development. It historically maintains some persons excluded from work. The social model considers the preparation of people with disabilities and the society strengthening the concept of inclusion. The methodological assumptions concerning both the social model of disability and the analysis of the work activity directed the assessment of the practices based on the biomedical model. Exploratory research methods were employed in order to analyze practices adopted by public and private institutions in Brazil as well as to the bibliographical research. Among 39 proposals of action examined, we had chosen three because they were the more significant and thus interviews were done in loco. Action research was used in a pilot study developed in a textile industry. This pilot study involved five people with disabilities, partnerships among institution of instruction, research and local governmental organizations. This study aimed both to analyze empirically techniques and methods of inclusion based on work activity and to assess whether inclusion of people with disabilities is tightly related to analyzis and adaptation concerning the work activities. Conclusions present the relevance of the social model of disability as basement for inclusion actions and the analyzis of work activity which shall comprise adaptations on the local of work and its work contents and processes for the people. Some factors may explain the low number of employed persons in relation to the market demanding: although the Law 8213/91 has been in operation for 17 years, its regulation took a long time; the inspection has still not have necessary structure; the public and private investment in professional qualification and in adaptation of work activities has still been insufficient. The lack of information on the work activities by employers as well as by the institutions for people with disabilities, the lack of accessibility in companies and the social stigma related to functional capacities and abilities of people with disabilities are the most difficulties in direction to inclusion. This study proposes a program under municipal ownership whereas it permits to know the local demanding of people with disabilities and companies. This program also might consider actions that provide working qualification for the people with disabilities, remove environment obstacles and aide the companies to useful adjustments for inclusion.