Análise de modelagem de previsão acústica e mapeamento sonoro para a cidade de São Carlos-SP
Giunta, Mariene Benutti
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Noise pollution in urban environment is a constant in several Brazilian cities and it is pointed out by the World Health Organization as one of the most common environmental problems in cities, influencing the quality of life and degrading the environment. Nowadays, ways of mitigating the acoustical environment of houses, buildings, industries and other constructions are studied to insulate them from the external surroundings, but the costs of this insulation is still very high. As a consequence, the external environment is usually neglected and the sound is intensified, being too difficult to control and directly affecting the internal environments. In this context, aiming the prevention of sound impacts and the diagnosis of noise conflict areas to adopt corrective actions, a noise mapping is an important tool to help urban planning. The noise mapping by data collection in locus or by mathematical models are though time consuming. An alternative to this are the computational programs, which simulate the urban acoustical environment based on calculation models. Many countries adopt their own model and, in the European case, the Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and Council recommend the application of the French model NMPB Routes-2008. Verifying the applicability of this model in the Brazilian case, this research aims to validate the behavior of the French model (NMPB Routes- 2008). In order to do so, the computational program Cadna-A was applied, and the following methodological process was adopted: data collection, application of the calculation model, comparison between collected data and modeling data; model validation and calibration; and, development of a noise mapping to a preliminary area of the studied city. The final results indicate that among the simulations developed, the one presenting the most precise outputs corresponded to the one for which the equivalent sound pressure level was applied as the input of sound source.