Modelos mentais e o ensino de física
Rocha, Arquiteclino Gonçalves
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The demotivation observed in the students concerning Physics led to the searching for a theoretical referential which could guide this pedagogical work. So, one understands the importance of Science teaching that contributes to a full formation of a conscious citizen that knows how to use their scientific knowledge with social responsibility. One looked for understand the difficult presented in the process of teaching and learning of Physics, focusing mainly in its important relation with Mathematics. For this, supported by PCN, it was analyzed the relation existing between the abilities and competences used in Math and Physics teaching. One also considered in the research, the different stages existing in Science learning, from which one understood the necessity of reaching the multidimensional stage in our schools. From this view, and supported by bibliographic references, it was pointed the existence of four main difficulties presented in the learning process of this subject. They are the difficulties inherent to Physics teaching, which started with the exceeding, premature and almost exclusive use of Math. There are also difficulties arising from Math learning that affect the learning of Physics. The difficulties from Portuguese language domain presented by students when reading, writing and interpreting scientific texts, limit the qualitative understanding of the subject and consequently, its conceptual understanding can be impaired. The existence of epistemological barriers, which arise from the different approaches of its own conceptual body also influence negatively the teaching and learning process of Physics. Supported by this perspective, the following question was done: What should one has to learn to teach, so the classes of Science, Physics and its integration with Math can make the knowledge more significant and, so that, multidimensional stage could be reached? The bibliographic analysis led to work in a theoretical basis with The Mental Models from Johnson-Laird . Using this theoretical support, it was elaborated and applied a didactic sequence, which was developed considering the difficulties in learning that were analyzed in this work. It was looked for understanding qualitatively the results obtained with the application of this didactic sequence. This process led to the elaboration of some topics, which were considered to be relevant in the preparation of a pedagogical activity for the teaching and learning process to be really relevant and, thus, contribute with a full citizen formation and a truly significant learning.