Investigação sobre o estabelecimento de falsas memórias por meio do paradigma da equivalência de estímulos
Aggio, Natalia Maria
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False memories are defined as remembering events that never happened or remember facts in a distorted way. In cognitive psychology this phenomenon has been studied through the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in witch lists of words semanticaly related are used. In behavior analysis, the paradigm of stimulus equivalence is a proposition to study semantic relations. This doctoral dissertation presents three studies with undergraduate students in witch DRM and the stimulus equivalence paradigms were used in association to investigate false memories. First and second studies aimed to replicate the phenomenon in a experimental situations, using both Paradigms. Difference concentrates in the controlled variables. In Study 1, nonsense words were used as stimuli. Procedure was divided into two phases. Phase 1: formation of three twelve members equivalence classes. Phase 2: verification of false memories using lists based on DRM paradigm. A list with 10 out of the 12 stimuli from each of the three classes was presented (study list). After completing a distracter task a lists composed by all stimuli from previously list (targets), the rest of the stimuli form the classes (critical distractors) and four more nonsense words (non-related distracters) were shown. Participants should indicate witch stimuli were presented on study list. Participant recognized significantly more critical distratctors, compared to non-related stimuli. However, results could be due to the novelty of non-related distractors. In the second study, this variable was controlled. In Study 2, bot phases were presented, but in Phase 1, participants were first taught three four-stimuli equivalence classes in witch one set of stimuli was familiar pictures. Later, three classes with twelve stimuli were taught. Stimuli from the first three classes were used as non-related distractors. Participant did not recognized significantly more critical distratctors, compared to non-related. It is argued that results could be due to a weak relations between stimuli from the equivalence classes. The third study aimed to increase the relations between stimuli and to investigate the effect of including emotional stimuli in equivalence classes, on false memories. Study 2 was replicated and in the twelve-member classes, a set of stimuli was pictures with happiness, angry or neutrality expressions. Only in neutral list critical ditractors were recognized significantly more than non-related distractors. Results indicates list with emotions are less likely to produce false memories.