Inclusão de objetos em classes de fotos equivalentes por pré-escolares
Pereira, Vanessa Ayres
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The present study aimed to investigate whether preschool children would acquire arbitrary conditional discriminations between pictures of objects, whether they would form equivalence classes between the photos and if they would then incorporate the objects themselves into classes (with no direct teaching of relations between them). An additional objective was to determine whether children would group together schematic drawings of objects in the same classes. Six children around the age of four participated. Initially, tests aimed to evaluate generalized repertoires of conditional discriminations by identity (between photos and between objects). Next, conditional discriminations were taught that served as a baseline for forming three equivalence classes between photographs of abstract objects (without names). Half of the participants underwent the Sample as Node Training (AB / AC) and the other half the Linear- Series Training (AB / BC). Multiple probes that assessed both baseline relations, as well as derived relations (symmetries and equivalences), were used to evaluate the effects of teaching on the learning process and the acquisition of discriminations, as well as the emergence of derived relations. Following the emergence of classes with the use of photos, arbitrary conditional discrimination tests were performed between objects and between objects and photos, in order to assess the expansion of the original classes. Lastly, the children underwent conditional discrimination tests between schematic figures. All participants accurately performed identity-matching conditional discriminations between photos and between objects, and conditional discrimination between objects and their photos. In the probes prior to the teaching participants answered at random in the baseline (AB, and AC or BC), symmetry (BA and CA or CB) and equivalence relations (BC and CB; or AC and CA). After the acquisition of the first base line (AB), the probes showed that AB was maintained as well as the emergence of BA symmetries. Following the second baseline (AC or BC), most participants maintained AC (or BC) and presented the symmetries (CA or CB); however, deterioration of AB and BA occurred for four children, whereas one child formed equivalence classes. For the others, the equivalence relations emerged after the teaching of mixed baselines (training simultaneously with AB and AC or with AB and BC). Three participants showed positive results in tests of equivalence between objects, and exhibited expansion classes while simultaneously matching objects and photos. Two responded according to the classes in the tests with schematic figures. Apparently, the training structure produced no systematic effects neither on the emergence of relations between photos, nor on the expansion of classes. The results carry important implications for understanding the symbolic behavior involving levels of correspondence between two-dimensional and tridimensional stimuli. Methodological limitations should be addressed in future studies which evaluate the role of critical variables for the photos-objects equivalence based on the teaching involving only one of the stimuli modalities.