Ordem-desordem: uma avaliação estrutural do Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3
Cavalcante, Laécio Santos
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This work have as aim, the synthesis of ceramic powders of Ba(ZrxTi1¡x)O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1) by the polymeric precursor method and investigate the degree of structural order-disorder of these systems by different characterization techniques, such as: thermogravimetric analysis (TA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The techniques of TA and DTA indicated a large mass loss of the precursors and that the increase in concentration of Zr in the lattice of the systems raises the crystallization temperature. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra showed that the powders of BaTiO3 have tetragonal structure and other systems have cubic structure. The infrared spectra showed a shift toward regions of higher wave number, with the substitution of Ti by Zr in the lattice. XANES spectra evidenced the presence of local clusters [TiO5]/[TiO6] and [ZrO5]/[ZrO6]. Moreover, there is a reduction in the displacement of Ti atom is outside of the center of the octahedron due to the increasing concentration of Zr in BaTiO3 lattice. With the EXAFS spectrum of BaZrO3 was possible to determine the approximate coordination number for the Zr clusters. The results obtained by EPR technique indicate that in the BaZrO3 with structural defects are possible the presence of species with electrons of unpaired spins. The absorption spectra in the UV-vis showed the presence of intermediate electronic levels between the valence band and conduction band in the powders with structural order-disorder, while the crystalline powders do not have the presence of these levels. Through the analysis of PL emission spectra was possible to verify the presence of order-disorder structural at medium range is fundamental for these systems have this property. Also, it was noted that the replacement of Ti by Zr in BaTiO3 lattice promotes a considerable increase in the PL intensity and different maximum emission in the visible (red, orange, yellow, green and blue). Moreover, models based on symmetry breaking among the Ti and/or Zr clusters are presented to explain the PL wide band and dual wide band for the ceramic powders. All the wide band models are proposed based on the presence of defects or symmetry breaking into lattice of these materials that promotes favorable conditions for the PL emission at room temperature before the excitation process.