Avaliação e correção de interferências na determinação de As e Se por técnicas com plasma acoplado indutivamente
Pereira, Catarinie Diniz
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The aim of the thesis was to evaluate different strategies for correcting spectral and non-spectral interferences on As and Se determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The determination of 75As+ and 80Se+ isotopes by ICP-MS is strongly affected by the presence of 40Ar35Cl+ and 40Ar2 +, respectively. These interferences can be solved using strategies of sample preparation, cool plasma and more recently collisions and reactions cells. It was studied here a new device for correcting those spectral interferences by the introduction of H2 and He gases through the sampler and skimmer cones present in the collision reaction interface (CRI). The introduction of H2 gas through the skimmer cone was more efficient for destroying polyatomic ions. Lower limits of detection (LOD), 0.019 and 0.097 ng mL-1 for 75As+ and 80 Se+ isotopes, respectively, were obtained by adding 80 mL min-1 H2 through the skimmer cone. The accuracy was demonstrated using two certified reference materials oyster tissue and mussel tissue. Matrix effects may also be corrected using suitable calibration strategies, such as internal standard or the standard additions method. For determination of As and Se by ICP OES it was evaluated a new nebulizer named FB®MN to correct matrix effects and to reduce interferences applying on-line calibration strategies. The aerosol generated by FB®MN was characterized and compared with the aerosol generated by a conventional pneumatic nebulizer (Micromist®). Solutions containing 0.05 and 0.10 mol L-1 Na, K, Ca, Mg, or a mixture of them were used as synthetic matrices. Germanium, In and Y were tested as internal standards. Best recoveries were achieved when 1 mg L-1 of In was used as internal standard. The values of D3,2 and D50 parameters demonstrated that the aerosol produced by using FB®MN has smaller drops than the aerosol produced by using Micromist®. In this study the FB®MN was also used for generation of As and Se XV hydrides directly into the aerosol formed inside the nebulization chamber before detection by ICP OES. The FB®MN allowed the hydrides generation directly into the spray chamber without using any additional device either for solution and gases control or for gas phase separation. Synthetic solutions containing As and Se plus Ca, Mg and K were used for evaluating hydride generation. Germanium, In and Y were tested as internal standards. Accuracy was assessed using addition-recovery experiments in synthetic solutions. Best recoveries for all media were achieved when Ge was used as internal standard. Limits of detection (LOD, 3σ blank) of 2.7 and 5.8 μg L-1 were obtained for As (228.812 nm) and Se (196.016 nm), respectively, when keeping the nebulization gas flow rate at 0.6 L min-1 and the liquid flow rate at 0.67 mL min-1.