Estratégias sintéticas para a preparação de novos fotossensibilizadores do tipo ftalocianinas
Gobo, Nicholas Roberto da Silva
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In this work some studies about the synthesis of a new Znphthalocyanine derivative containing 8 tert-butyl groups on peripheral positions were performed. In order to obtain this compound, a new monomeric unit were synthesized 4,5-di-tert-butylphthalonitrile where a Diels-Alder reaction between a cyclic sulfone (diene) and a dinitrile (dienophile) was the key step. Beyond the synthesis and structural characterization of this phthalocyanine, preliminary photophysical studies to verify potential applications of this compound as photosensitizer were performed. To reach the 4,5-dissubstituted phthalonitrile 8, firstly, thiophene 5 was synthesized (SCHEME 8). After established the methodology to provide 5 in good yield, some tests between 5 and fumaronitrile (6) on cycloaddition conditions were performed, however, as expected, no reaction occurred, and the starting materials were recovered (SCHEME 9). Aiming at the raising diene 5 reactivity, this compound was oxidized to sulfone 9 (SCHEME 10). After that, some test between the sulfone 9 and fumaronitrile (6) were performed. The objective was to achieve a one-pot 3 steps reaction (Diels-Alder SO2 cheletropic elimination oxidation). However compound 8 was reached only in poor yields (SCHEME 10). To overcome the poor yields, some dinitrilic dienophiles were proposed. For example, dicyanoacetylene 10 (SCHEME 11) could furnish the phthalonitrile 8 after a cycloaddition and SO2 elimination. However, dicyanoacetylene (10) showed not to be accessible, and, in our hands, it was not possible to obtain with literature available procedures. According to literature, the insertion of halogens in dinitrilic dienophiles greatly raises its reactivity for cycloaddition reactions. Then, the bromination of fumaronitrile (6) to obtain the dienophile 13 was performed (SCHEME 12). After compound 13 was reached, some tests with diene 9 were done. The 4,5-di-tertbutylphthalonitrile (8) was obtained in 50% yield in a solvent-free three step domino sequence (Diels-Alder SO2 cheletropic elimination HBr elimination). Studies to obtain the phthalocyanine 14 were performed (SCHEME 13). Firstly, a current methodology in literature were tested which uses DMAE/140°C/Zn(OAc)2, however the best obtained result for 14 was only 7% yield. In addition, many polymeric byproducts were observed. Another tested methodology was the addition of phthalonitrile 8 in a solution of n-pentanol and its respective alcoxide under heating. Phthalocyanine 15 was obtained in 22% yield in these conditions. When the tetramerization was performed and the crude product metallated using anhydrous Zn(OAc)2, phthalocyanine 14 was obtained in 21% yield (SCHEME 14). In both cases these results were optimized, and the results were in agreement with the literature. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized (1D and 2D NMR, UV-Vis, IR), HRMS (ESI-TOF for compound 8 and MALDI-TOF for compounds 14 and 15) and low resolution mass spectroscopy (compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9). Preliminary photophysical and photochemical studies for phthalocyanines 14 and 15 were performed (aggregation studies, singlet oxygen quantum yield, fluorescence quantum yield and photobleaching). The obtained results demonstrated compounds 14 and 15 fulfill some essential requirements for PDT studies.