Associações italianas no interior paulista num espaço partilhado : nacionalismo e italianidade sob a perspectiva da história local
Teixeira, Rosane Siqueira
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This thesis seeks to develop an understanding of the trajectories of two groups of Italians who were members of the management board of two organizations, namely the Società Italiani Uniti (SIU) and the Società Italiana di Mutuo Soccorso "Gabriele D'Annunzio" ("SIMS"Gd'A ), located in Araraquara (SP) and in Catanduva (SP), respectively; this investigation was performed from the perspective of the local history, offering some reflections on the ways in which these trajectories have been significantly marked by the rise of fascism. The study covers a period from the end of the 19th century until 1942, with special focus on the 1920s and 1930s in the twentieth century. Thus, it is plausible to say that the effect of the rise of fascism in their organizations, and consequently in the trajectory of the leaders, is intrinsically related to the local conditions of each Italian colony. In this sense, Araraquara has been developed and shaped by the concepts of colonialism and there was some evidence of a closed society and a hostile environment. The social integration of Italian immigrants occurred through a gradual process. However, with respect to the political insertion, some of them have found an alternative path and joined the local Masonic Lodge. Conversely, in Catanduva, the growth of the town has occurred due to the arrival of immigrants, and it was found that there was greater permeability of social and political integration. The doctrine of fascism was incorporated into the SIU and SIMS Gd'A at different times and in different ways. In 1928, empowered by the actions of a group of partners, the SIU was recognized as a shared space where beneficent actions and fascism occurred in an open manner. Hence, the SIU began to decline in the 1930s. Therefore, the SIMS Gd'A only shared its space effectively when it became Casa d'Italia, in 1937, as agreed by consensus among the members, then becoming the only institution to represent italianity in Catanduva. Both the SIU and SIMS Gd A offered an important contribution to the consolidation of italianity in the Italian colonies. Because of access to the official records of the board meeting proceedings of these two organizations was provided, it was possible to carry out a systematic study. It was also used a wide range of public and private records, both in Brazil and in Italy (Rome). Moreover, additional data were collect through face-to-face interviews, mainly of the descendants of Italians.