Entre idas e vindas, entre ganhos e perdas : as trajetórias de camponeses brasileiros em vivências na fronteira boliviana com o Acre
Silva, Diego Correia da
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The induced migration is a constitutive and persistent part of the Brazilian state strategies in the Amazon occupation process and, particularly, in the Acre occupation process as well. However, the incessant concentration of the means of production especially land and the local resistance movements apart has generated the expulsion of some groups to beyond the Brazilian border. These groups occupied the Bolivian side of the border as an alternative, even though precarious to keep their economical survival, without losing their social bond that links them to the acrian side. But to across the border between Acre and Bolívia was not the most painful experience of these groups, in terms of their identitary state as extractives, since these groups are confronted with a greater challenge that is their expulsion of the border as a means of national security and Bolivian sovereignty. With deadline to leave their homes, i.e., desterritorializate in a compulsory manner, these groups comprehend their nationality as a restrictive factor to production place in the Bolivian territory, and at the same time, they do not have any favorable factor to their reinsertion in the Brazilian territory, mainly in the Acre countryside. In this context, the objective of this dissertation is a sociological investigation about the trajectories and the subsequent socio-spatial vulnerabilization processes lived by the Brazilian peasants that nowadays occupy areas in the border between Bolívia and Acre. For this purpose, we present a sociological and qualitative research, whose procedures are the bibliography review about the politics of Amazon occupation, studies about the official data from multilateral organizations and Brazilian institutes involved with the topic, semistructured interviews and photo-documentation. The analysis of the results was divided in three parts, each one relative to one migratory movement: from Brazilian Northwest to Amazon (Trajectory 1); from Acre to Bolívia (Trajectory 2); and the return of the peasants to Brazil (Trajectory 3). Among the most important findings are the identification of regular regimes that affected the deterritorialization processes of the group, such as the lack of legitimacy of the right to ownership of land by peasants, and other unique traits, such as degradation resulting from identity tensions experienced in the bolivian context, which are being expelled.