Estudo de indicadores de estresse em Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã) exposto a deltametrina (Keshet®)
Soares, Camila Aparecida Pigão
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In the last 40 years, the use of pesticides increased 700% in Brazil, setting this country into the very consumers of this kind of chemicals in the world. There among the most used pesticides in Brazil are the pyrethroids, a class of insecticides largely used for the stability to light rays and being not accumulated in the trophic chain. Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid classified as moderately toxic and it may work as endocrine disruptor. It is widely used in the farms and preserving stocked foods. Pyrethroids are low toxic to mammals and birds. Although, new studies pointed out their noxiousness to aquatic organisms such as fishes. The high toxicity of pyrethroids to fishes may be related to damages caused to nervous system and to their mechanisms of biochemical degradation. Biomarkers are a way of monitoring the pesticides effects on the environments. Among them, cholinesterases and metabolites such as glucose, cortisol and lactate can be used. In the present monography is reported a work carried out in vivo with matrinxa exposed to deltamethrin (Keshet®) at 20, 40 and 60% of CL50:96h for 96 hours, and other in vitro with matrinxa exposed to the analytical formulation of deltamethrin (Pestanal®). After the pesticide exposure, fish were anesthetized, blood was withdrawn and then the fish were killed for brain, liver, gut, gills and white muscle excision. From the observations we can say that glucose, protein and ammonia were increased in liver, and amino acids and ammonia were increased in plasma. The glycogen bulks of liver and plasma lactate were decreased. In white muscle, protein and amino acids levels were decreased, and ammonia, glucose and lactate increased. Concerning the studied enzymes, it was observed inhibition of brain AChE in vivo and in vitro activities while CbE was inhibited in the gills and gut but increased in white muscle and plasma. The enzyme activities of ALAT and ASAT increased in liver and LDH activity was reduced. Therefore, we may conclude that matrinxa presented metabolic changes in order to supply the energetic demand caused by deltamethrin poisoning. The inhibition of AChE was observed, as expected, in addition to CbE increase, showing the activation of mechanisms to degrade deltamethrin. It is possible to assert that Brycon amazonicus exposed to deltamethrin is biochemically responsive to the poisoning using adaptive strategies which enable it to escape from toxic effects of a contaminated environment by such xenobiotic.