Cerâmicas refratárias resinadas: fundamentos, análise crítica e efeito dos agentes grafitizantes e antioxidantes
Bitencourt, Celina Souza
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Improvements on carbon containing refractories are synonymous of benefits for the entire steel industry. In the last years, two particular developments deserve to be highlighted: (i) the report of additives able to graphitize the carbon fixed by the thermoset polymers used as refractory binders and (ii) the induction, by combining antioxidants, of in situ growth special whiskers. Whereas the graphitization would reduce the disadvantages that thermosetting resins present when compared to other organic binders, the whiskers would be able to afford significant improvements concerning mechanical and chemical resistances. However, the fundamentals at which these innovations are based on left some unanswered questions. Therefore, the main purpose of this project was to reproduce and analyze these technologies in order to fill such gaps, by evaluating MgO-C model compositions via XRD, SEM and thermogravimetry. The attained results shown that both technologies appreciably modified the phases developed in these model compositions. However, regarding the graphitizing agents, such changes did not lead to benefits related to the carbon oxidation resistance, and the literature results concerning special whiskers were not fully reproduced. It was also observed that the model compositions approach presents some weak links and their use to forecast the refractory microstructure would not be recommended. Nevertheless, based on the experiments carried out, an enormous diversity of whiskers were attained which could also been formed in the refractories. This latter issue motivates further analysis in order to evaluate the consequences of such structures in the thermo-mechanical properties. Additionally, aiming to understand the carbon containing refractories and to identify other routes less explored to improve them, this project also reviews and critically analyses the literature in the area and in the correlated ones, such as those on carbon and polymers fields.