Propriedades de zeólitas x formadas por partículas micro- e nanométricas contendo cátions alquilamônio lineares
Motta, Ingrid Lopes
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Nanosized NaX zeolites (FAU) (crystallite size = 16 nm; Si/Al ratio = 1,5) were synthesized and modified through ion exchange with linear alkylammonium cations containing from one to six carbons, with the intent to activate basic sites. In this work, commercial microsized zeolites (Aldrich) were also ion exchanged for comparison matters and all samples were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that both micro- and nanosized zeolites containing sodium portray polycrystalline particles: the former presents octahedral habit and particle size of 2952 nm and the latter presents an indefinite habit and particle size of 426 nm. Among the ion exchanged samples, none presented complete exchange of the Na+ cations due to steric hindrance. Nanosized zeolites presented higher exchange degrees than the microsized ones, which is due to higher accessibility to the exchange sites. Such factors also explain the exchange degrees’ reduction with the cations’ chain length, which is less abrupt among the nanosized samples. This happens due to the nanosized samples’ higher interparticular porosity, which has also allowed their micropore volumes’ constant decrease, differently from the microsized samples, which faced a minimum value with butylammonium. When the cations’ length is increased, the unit cell expands in comparison to the zeolites containing sodium since bulkier cations cause variations in the length and angle of the of the O-Si-O and O-Al-O bonds. Through thermogravimetric analysis in oxidant atmosphere, it was observed that the longer the carbon chain length, the lower is the mass loss, which evidences the lower diffusional limitations. The same was observed in inert atmosphere, which indicates that the presence of O2 does not influence the thermal events. Nanosized zeolites illustrate smoother mass loss profiles, which marks smaller diffusional limitations. The zeolitic materials were catalytically evaluated along the Knoevenagel condensation between butyraldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate (3% m/m catalyst) during 1 h. The nanometric zeolites presented higher conversions and higher reaction rates when t = 0 than the microcrystalline ones, confirming the advantages of nanosized materials.