Modelagem ambiental de áreas degradadas por processos erosivos, com vista ao planejamento ambiental–São Pedro e Santa Maria da Serra/SP
Piga, Fabíola Geovanna
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Global and local environmental changes are almost always associated with the increase of human activities, whose impacts cause significant transformations of the environment. These changes are linked to several socioeconomic and socioenvironmental factors, such as population density, urban expansion, agricultural expansion, deforestation, industrialization and the increasing production of solid waste, compromising the availability of natural resources and the quality of the environment. In view of these considerations, this work had the objective of elaborating an environmental diagnosis, in the face of erosive processes, through the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) associated with soil loss prediction models, analyzing the dynamics of land use and land cover Over the years, and integrating the various physical and environmental factors to determine the degree of susceptibility of the environment through environmental fragility. For this purpose, an area characterized by intense erosion processes was selected, comprising the municipalities of São Pedro and Santa Maria da Serra, which has a direct contribution to the sediment load in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. In addition, such an area is part of the Corumbataí APA, that by law the preservation and conservation of its landscape should be ensured. The results showed that the area has suffered from the problem of erosion for more than 60 years and little has been done to reverse this situation. The year of 2015 was the one that presented the greatest loss of soil, and the expansion of the urban spot and agricultural areas caused a high fragility of the study area. This scenario demonstrates that the role of APA is not being addressed since its purpose is to balance local socioeconomic development with the sustainability of environmental resources. This study allowed the delimitation of areas restricted to anthropic interventions, which require greater care, and areas with greater aptitude for urbanization, contributing to the study of urban and environmental planning.