Modelos sustentáveis para o tratamento de efluentes sob abordagem da gestão Ambiental
Perjessy, Jaqueline Rosele
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In Brazil, the sanitation sector exhibits a lack of attention to the quality of water resources, causing, in the last decades, pressures that have compromised the quality and availability of water for the population. The country is ranked among the worst countries with effluent treatment systems, where more than half of the Brazilian population does not have access to the sewage collection network, putting the health of the residents and the environment at risk. Therefore, the challenge is to promote changes in the sanitary quality management process and to initiate decentralized processes. The knowledge of non-conventional techniques aims to enable the promotion of quality of life for the population, as well as the preservation of the environment, in pursuit of sustainability. Permacultural design models for domestic sewage treatment can be applied in order to avoid inappropriate disposal in watercourses, as well as taking advantage of the benefits generated by the application of these processes. These systems in several ecovillages serves as an example of alternative social project; in addition, it can be used to clarify doubts about sanitation in the region and promote the concept of sustainable development for the whole community. The techniques used in permaculture systems for the treatment of sewage, such as compostable dry sanitation, evapotranspiration basin, circle of banana plants, biosystems and composting, transform it and add value, bringing a solution to the problems, allowing healthy ecosystems continuing to develop without being exhausted. The present work aimed to identify and describe techniques for sewage treatment, as far as its applicability, proposing an alternative due to the necessity for new paradigms and the current conditions of coverage and sanitation service in Brazil.