Objetos educacionais digitais no livro didático de Biologia: um estudo de obras aprovadas no PNLD 2015
Kapp, Alessandra Miguel
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The world we live, both physical and social, over time has undergone profound changes. Most of these changes, due to technological development, modify the way people think, act and relate. Regarding the demands of the contemporary society to qualify citizens able to use ICT as access to information through educational processes allied to the fact that school is increasingly being asked to contribute to the construction of digital communities, this research is inserted in the field of analysis of the digital didactic resources production, specifically on the digital educational objects (DEO). Thus, this research aimed to configure the insertion of digital educational objects in biology high school textbooks approved in PNLD 2015 and its contributions to teaching. As research specific objectives, it is important to locate and identify: i) The presence of DEOs in biology textbooks; ii) the themes, the textual type and /or visual representation, and the content approaches in the DEOs; iii) the type of DEO and its relation to the contents; iv) the role of DEOs in the teaching approach assumed by the textbook and v) the contribution of the DEOs in teaching. The analysis corpus selection was initially carried out by the search for information in the Didactic Book Guide of PNLD 2015 on the presence of interactivity in the DEOs, since it can contribute to the modification of the way in which it is taught and learnt the school contents. Two collections were selected, one marked by the excessive amount of non-interactive DEOs and the other with a varied degree of interactivity. During the analysis of the material we used the typology of the PNLD 2014 public notice that divided the DEOs into: audiovisuals, educational electronic games, simulators and infographics. The second type of classification refers to the textual type of DEOs contents, which brings a theoretical construction about the linguistic nature. Thus, they were divided into: narration, dissertation, exposition, injunction and description. However, in addition to the textual typology, it was also identified in the DEOs those which did not present verbal productions, these being interpreted through representations of image. For the analysis of the visual representations we classify the DEOs in: narrative representations and conceptual representations. During the exploration of the data, emergent categories based on the theoretical perspective of biology teaching were constructed. They are: to contextualize social and scientifically; to characterize the procedures of science; to approach reality; to illustrate an information or situation; and to represent scientific phenomena, models and hypotheses. From the systematization and interpretation of the data, we identify that one of the collections was marked by excessive quantity of non-interactive DEOs, categorized by an expository and illustrative format in order to facilitate biological concepts memorization and assimilation process. As much as the other collection sought to present DEOs with a higher level of interactivity, the education objects, in turn, were categorized, for the most part, as an illustrative textual type. The results indicated that most DEOs are still approaching limited resources, in which the student is asked to passively follow the information. It is concluded, in the analysis of these two textbooks, that the structuring and fundamental element that would make possible to expand the information presented in the printed book, based on degrees of interactivity, between the student and the content, in the learning process, was not yet in fact achieved by DEOs.