Caracterização de agroecossistemas utilizados por agricultores familiares em comunidades rurais no Portal da Amazônia - Mato Grosso: agrobiodiversidade, alimentação e geração de renda
Souza, Valdânia da Conceição de
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The human relationship with production systems has occurred since remote times, but conventional models have generated degradation of ecosystems, increasing the search for systems that favor agrobiodiversity. The objective of this study was the identification and characterization of agroecosystems, focusing on homegardens, present in rural properties in order to highlight the importance of these for the promotion of agrobiodiversity, highlighting plant species used for consumption and commercialization. For that, semi-structured interviews were conducted, as well as guided visits with direct observation on familiar rural properties in the Portal of Amazon. In chapter 1, we analyzed the plant species richness in 24 homegardens in Alta Floresta and 20 in Nova Canaã do Norte (MT). A total of 201 species were identified, cultivated for various uses, of which 131 are food and 96 are commercialized in several commercial sources. The backyards presented low similarity among themselves, with averages around 30% in the two municipalities, indicating a great heterogeneity regarding the choice of species by the farmers. Tree species were more frequent, with occurrence of species native to the Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems. In the second chapter, we analyzed the types of agroecosystems that occurred in nine of the properties, located in the Vila Rural community in Alta Floresta, with respective richness of species and similarities. The results showed four subsystems of production, with homegardens, vegetable gardens, woods and fields, where 136 species are cultivated, mainly used for food. The backyards were the richest in terms of species, with 71% and the richest ones with 14%. The similarity did not show a strong floristic relationship in these subsystems between the properties and among themselves, with most of the indices being presented, below 50%, indicating diversification in the cultivated vegetable species and preferences of the farmers in the choice of these species. The relevance of these agroecosystems, especially homegardens, for agricultural diversification, agrobiodiversity conservation, food supplementation and income generation in the studied rural communities is observed.