Currículo e o ensino de ciências nos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental: implicações na prática docente
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The present research deals with an empirical investigation, which aims to understand the process of the curriculum of Sciences’ development, of the initial years of elementary school, in a municipal public school of Elementary Education located in the interior of São Paulo State. The research was based on studies related to the curriculum, according to the assumptions developed by Gimeno Sacristán, and developed in a qualitative approach. The following methodological procedures were adopted: documentary analysis, semistructured interview, classroom observation and focal group. Data analyzes were performed based on the curricular dimensions proposed by the author, grouped according to the two axes: 1) prescribed, presented and modeled curriculum, dimensions that occur outside the classroom context; 2) in action and evaluated curriculum, dimensions that occur in the context of the classroom. From the analyzes related to axis 1, the research showed the influence of the official documents in the construction of the pedagogical proposal of the municipal school network, mainly the National Curricular Parameters; the curriculum presented had the textbook as the main intermediate agent, being an important support for the operationalization of curricular prescription; the translations made by the teachers of the curriculum, have revealed that they consider several elements in curricular modeling, which are related to the profile, to the academic and professional backgrounds, and to the conception of learning and Science of each teacher. In axis 2, the curriculum in action was directly influenced by the prescribed curriculum, the textbook was used by almost all teachers who, in an autonomous way, used different instruments and materials to architect practices; the evaluated curriculum, characterized as one of the most valued by Gimeno Sacristán, showed itself differently in the case of Science teaching, considering that the evaluation in the area does not have the same recognition as Portuguese Language and Mathematics, for example. The Science curriculum component is not part of the internal nor external county evaluation in the initial years, fact that implies in the opportunities for teachers to re-signify their practice and also in the direction of public policy. In general the teaching of Sciences still presents weaknesses, however teachers seek to improve practice, even with gaps in training, allowing the space given them in the curriculum can be used, in view of the emphasis on reading and writing, so common in this segment. Continuing education is a determining factor determinant for a quality Science teaching.