A legislação da Educação a Distância no Brasil: Uma análise discursiva materialista dos conceitos de aluno e professor
Perez, Alessandra Fracaroli
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In this work, we aim to investigate the meanings movement of the words teacher and student in Distance Learning (hereinafter DL) through the statements contained in the discursive materiality of the legislations of this teaching modality. Our research is based on a contextualization of DL in Brazil, divided into three moments, describing the movements of this teaching modality focusing on the moment that interests this research. It is based on the theoretical-analytical field of Discourse Analysis (hereafter DA) of the French matrix starting from the theorizations of the philosopher Michel Pêcheux and other authors who contribute to DA theoretical field, besides the movements of the theoretical field that delineated the DA as it realizes today in Brazil. The corpus is composed of a legal file that includes the Law of Directives and Bases - LDB 9.394 of December 20, 1996 - art. 80 (BRAZIL, 1996), when distance learning begins at all levels of education and the decrees that regulate this law are: 2,494 February 1998 (BRAZIL, 1998a); 5,622 of December 19, 2005 (BRAZIL, 2005); 9,057 of May 25, 2017 (BRAZIL, 2017b). The methodology defined is the thematic path, proposed by Guilhaumou and Maldidier (1997), which allows us to go beyond writing, reconstructing the paths that build the event in history for the analysis of the discursive materiality present in this work. Our methodological course is as follows: from the selected files that compose the corpus of this research, we will start with the analysis of the moment that DL appears in all levels of education, based on LDB 9394/96. Subsequently we focus the analysis around the words teacher and student where we will analyze the direction of the same movements undertaken in the discursive materiality of the statements of decrees 2494/98; 5622/05; 9057/17. It seeks to understand the meanings movements of these words by analyzing how these notions are inserted, modified and moved in a certain historical moment, materialized in the decrees. Our analysis made it possible to understand that the beginning of DL brings a new subject-position for graduation. From that moment, we analyze that in a first moment the teacher is silenced, replaced by the technology. Now, the student, considered by the decree as self-taught, has a slip of sense as to its role in the teaching-learning process. In a second moment, we find that the teacher and the student retrieve their role in mediating the educational process. In a third moment, the role of the teacher gains a plurality of actions for their function and the student plays a central role in the teaching-learning process. It is noteworthy that there were movements of meaning regarding the role of the teacher and the student in this modality of teaching, however, today we can analyze that they return to their place of speech in this modality, thus safeguarding their actions in the teaching-learning process.