A fauna em jogo: perspectivas do jogo de papéis nas dimensões de conhecimento, valores e participação na Educação Ambiental crítica
Oliveira, Adriana Fernandes Machado de
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One of the goals of the critical Environmental Education (EE) is to stimulate the reflection process allied to citizenship principles through transformative learning, within the educational dimensions of knowledge, values and participation. This can empower people to be emotionally able to changes and politically aware. A transformative EE methodology should seek change and not just knowledge attainment; reveal behaviors in a realistic scenery; emphasize internal and external influences on current environmental behavior; and include an interactive conflict situation that demands a solution. Roleplay simulations allow us to observe behaviors during problem-solving approaches and to reflect upon them, through collaborative practice and social interaction. The aim of this essay was to create a role-playing game with a socioenvironmental conflict contextualized to fauna conservation issues in the region of Jundiaí-SP, and then investigate the potentiality of this material related to the critical EE dimensions. The specific objectives were: to explore these potentialities in an educational action that used this methodology in continuing professional development for teachers; to assess the main fauna conservation problems in the region of Jundiaí-SP; to create a role-playing game based on the problems found; to analyze this game when utilized with high school students, in order to identify the dimensions of knowledge, values and participation; to verify if it was possible to explore transformative methodologies during the use of this material; and to contribute with the repertoire of participative methodologies in EE. The content analysis of the discussions generated during the simulation had both a qualitative and descriptive approach, regarding context inferences, as well as quantitative in terms of the frequency of appearance of certain elements of the message. The investigation of conflicts in the area occurred through bibliographical and documentary research. The results obtained through the post-game questionnaire with students and the semi-structured interview with the teacher present during the activity were examined by a descriptive analysis. In the continuing professional development for teachers, aspects of critical EE were seen, with great potential for transformation of the causes of socioenvironmental conflicts. Regarding the main issues related to fauna conservation in the region of Jundiaí-SP, it was noticed the existence of several socioenvironmental problems caused by humans, such as the high number of road accidents involving animals, given the proximity of the city with several important highways. Stemming from this, a didactic roleplay simulation was created, entitled “A Fauna em Jogo” [fauna in game], to raise debate on urban development, sustainability and biodiversity conservation. The use of visual resources facilitated the understanding of the dynamics of the game and the appropriation of the characteristics of the characters. The dialogues that took place during the play displayed aspects of the EE dimensions of participation, values and knowledge, as well as characteristics of EE in its critical, pragmatic and conservative currents. There could also be seen the particularities of a transforming methodology. The following attributes were observed in "A Fauna em Jogo": playful nature; presence of difficulties, with internal and external influences on individual behavior; experience of decentralization, cognitive conflict and consensus building; validation and recognition of the perspectives of other actors; shared experiences between people with different contexts; team building through collaborative learning; and critical reflection and connection of the game with formal knowledge.