Os aspectos psicossociais no trabalho
Gonçalves, Josiane Sotrate
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Work stress affects an increasing number of workers, making necessary to evaluate the psychosocial work environment. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) is a questionnaire used to assess psychosocial conditions at work among different populations. However, its short version is not translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. Thus, two studies were conducted. Study 1 aimed to transculturally adapt the short version of COPSOQ II for Brazilian Portuguese (COPSOQ II-Br) and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Study 2 aimed to describe the sociodemographic, occupational and health profile of outsourced workers in the cleaning sector who work in a Higher Education Institution and to identify factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and heart rate variability among this population. The translation process, transcultural adaptation and the psychometric properties test were carried out in accordance with the international standardized recommendations. We evaluated 211 public sector workers and service providers in the test and 157 in the retest. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was carried out. Some dimensions showed floor and ceiling effect. Cronbach alpha values reached the recommended levels. The test-retest reliability test indicated all dimensions had a ICC greater than 0.70. SEM ranged from 0.6 to 2.2 and the construct validity was demonstrated. Thus, the measurement properties of the short version of the COPSOQ II-Br are suitable for use in Brazil. Since the COPSOQ II-Br was available, the psychosocial aspects and the occupational exposure among cleaners were evaluated. Forty-five workers (100% women) who had an age group between 18 and 65 years answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, occupational and health data, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Questionnaire in work and leisure, and the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II-Br). Clinical data (stature, body mass, waist hip ratio, blood pressure and heart rate variability) were also collected. Logistic and linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with symptoms and heart rate variability. Workers reported systemic hypertension (23%) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the lower limbs (knees and ankles/feet). The most commonly reported critical psychosocial aspects were “Influence at work” (74%), Burnout” (59%) and “Stress” (52%). There was an association between the symptoms in the ankle/foot and the body mass index and between heart rate variability indexes and age and waist hip ratio. Musculoskeletal symptoms and heart rate variability indices were associated with body composition measures. Thus, possible measures to promote health and prevent future should be taken to benefit the population are workers. Therefore, the present thesis provides the COPSOQ II-Br to evaluate the psychosocial conditions in Brazilian workers and reveals the health profile of cleaners.